The Consolidated Mines Rules, 2022, promulgated by the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, serve as a comprehensive regulatory framework governing the operation, safety, and management of coal and metalliferous mines within the province. These rules, issued under the authority of the Mines Safety, Inspection and Regulation Act, 2019, replace previous regulations including the Metalliferous Mines Regulations, 1926. The enactment aims to enhance operational safety standards, ensure the welfare of mine workers, and streamline administrative processes.

Key Provisions

  1. Scope and Application: The rules apply universally to all coal and metalliferous mines within Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, coming into force immediately upon their notification.
  2. Mining Board: The establishment and functioning of the Mining Board is detailed, including the nomination process for members representing miners’ interests. The Board plays a crucial role in overseeing compliance and resolving disputes related to mining operations​​.
  3. Mine Registration: All mines must be registered with the Chief Inspector of Mines. The registration process involves submitting a detailed application, accompanied by a registration fee. Annual renewals are mandatory, with non-compliance resulting in penalties and potential mine closures​​.
  4. Safety and Welfare Measures: The rules mandate rigorous safety protocols, including regular inspections, maintenance of safety equipment, and immediate reporting of accidents. Mines are required to provide essential facilities such as clean drinking water, first aid, and proper safety gear to workers​​.
  5. Medical Provisions: Health and safety inspections are conducted to ensure compliance with health regulations. Mines must facilitate medical examinations for employees and maintain records of any occupational diseases or injuries​​.
  6. Workers’ Rights and Duties: Workers are obligated to adhere to safety regulations and report hazards. They have the right to be informed of workplace hazards, remove themselves from dangerous situations, and participate in selecting health and safety representatives​​.
  7. Record Keeping and Reporting: Mines must maintain comprehensive records, including registers of employees, accident logs, and operational reports. Monthly and annual returns detailing mine operations and worker statistics are required to be submitted to the Chief Inspector​​.

Critical Analysis

While the Consolidated Mines Rules, 2022, represent a significant step forward in standardizing mine operations and enhancing worker safety, several areas warrant further scrutiny and potential improvement:

  1. Enforcement and Compliance: The effectiveness of these rules hinges on robust enforcement mechanisms. The Chief Inspector and other officials are tasked with substantial oversight responsibilities, which may strain available resources. Ensuring adequate staffing and training for inspectors is critical for consistent enforcement.
  2. Worker Representation: The nomination process for miner representatives on the Mining Board relies heavily on registered trade unions. In scenarios where union representation is weak or absent, alternative mechanisms should be considered to ensure miners’ interests are adequately represented.
  3. Penalties for Non-Compliance: While penalties are outlined for non-compliance with registration and safety regulations, the deterrent effect of these penalties depends on their strict and transparent application. The rules should specify clear guidelines for escalating penalties for repeat offenders.
  4. Health Provisions: The rules mandate medical examinations and reporting of occupational diseases, but the accessibility and quality of medical facilities in remote mining areas remain a concern. Investment in healthcare infrastructure and mobile medical units could address these gaps.
  5. Modernization and Technology: The rules could further benefit from incorporating modern technological solutions for safety and monitoring. For instance, the use of real-time monitoring systems for gas detection and structural integrity could enhance safety outcomes.
  6. Environmental Considerations: While the primary focus is on worker safety and operational efficiency, environmental protection measures are not prominently addressed. Integrating environmental safeguards and sustainability practices into the regulatory framework could ensure more holistic and responsible mining practices.


The Consolidated Mines Rules, 2022, mark a pivotal advancement in the regulatory landscape of mining operations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. By establishing comprehensive safety standards, streamlined administrative processes, and enhanced welfare provisions for workers, these rules aim to foster a safer and more efficient mining sector. However, ongoing evaluation and refinement of these rules are necessary to address enforcement challenges, enhance worker representation, and integrate modern safety technologies and environmental safeguards. As always, Josh and Mak International remains committed to assisting stakeholders in navigating these regulations and ensuring compliance for sustainable and responsible mining operations.

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