The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mines Safety, Inspection and Regulation Act, 2019 (the “Act”) represents a significant legislative effort to enhance the safety, health, and regulatory compliance within the mining industry of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. This Act, gazetted on 13th January 2020, consolidates and amends previous mining safety laws, aiming to mitigate the risks associated with mining operations and to ensure the well-being of individuals working within this hazardous sector.

Scope and Definitions

The Act applies to all mining operations within the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, encompassing both underground and surface mines. It introduces comprehensive definitions to clarify key terms such as “accident,” “agent,” “apprentice,” “Board of examiners,” and “Chief Inspector” . These definitions are crucial for the effective implementation of the Act as they provide clear guidelines on the roles and responsibilities within the mining operations.

Safety Provisions

One of the core components of the Act is its emphasis on occupational safety and health. The Act mandates the provision of adequate safety measures for roads and working places in mines, including the maintenance of pillars and barriers between mines to prevent collapses and other accidents ​​. It prescribes detailed procedures for the inspection of mines, both operational and disused, and sets forth regulations for the ventilation of mines to manage hazardous gases and dust, thereby safeguarding miners from toxic and inflammable substances .

Regulation of Explosives and Electrical Equipment

The Act regulates the storage, handling, and use of explosives within mines, subject to the provisions of the Explosives Act, 2013. This ensures that mining operations involving explosives are conducted safely and responsibly. Additionally, it governs the use of electricity in mines, including the generation, transmission, and use of electrical equipment, to prevent electrical hazards .

Employment Restrictions and Training

To further enhance safety, the Act imposes restrictions on the employment of certain individuals in mines. It prohibits the employment of women in specific hazardous conditions and mandates the medical examination and certification of fitness for all workers before and during their employment in mines . Furthermore, the Act emphasizes the need for proper training of mining personnel, ensuring they are well-equipped to handle the dangers inherent in mining operations .

Accident Reporting and Investigation

The Act outlines the procedure for reporting accidents and dangerous occurrences within mines. It requires mine owners, agents, or managers to submit detailed reports and returns of mineral output, accidents, and other relevant data to the designated authorities. This ensures that accidents are promptly investigated, and necessary measures are taken to prevent their recurrence .

Appeal Mechanisms

In instances where mine owners, agents, or managers are aggrieved by orders issued by inspectors or the Chief Inspector, the Act provides a structured appeal mechanism. Aggrieved parties can lodge appeals with the Chief Inspector or the Secretary, who are tasked with reviewing and deciding on these appeals within specified timeframes . This mechanism ensures that decisions impacting mining operations are fair and consider the perspectives of all stakeholders involved.

Critical Analysis of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mines Safety Act, 2019

While the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mines Safety, Inspection and Regulation Act, 2019 (the “Act”) represents a significant advancement in mining safety regulation, several areas warrant critical examination to ensure its effectiveness and comprehensiveness.

Ambiguity in Definitions and Roles

The Act introduces various definitions and roles, such as “agent,” “competent person,” and “Chief Inspector,” which are essential for its implementation. However, the qualifications and experience required for these roles are not explicitly detailed. This lack of specificity can lead to inconsistent interpretations and enforcement. For instance, the term “competent person” is defined broadly, potentially allowing individuals without adequate expertise to be designated for critical safety tasks .

Insufficient Focus on Modern Mining Techniques

The Act primarily addresses traditional mining methods but lacks comprehensive provisions for modern mining technologies and techniques, such as automation and remote-controlled machinery. As the mining industry evolves, regulations must adapt to new safety challenges posed by advanced technologies. The absence of specific guidelines for these technologies could result in gaps in safety oversight and increased risks for workers.

Limited Provisions for Environmental Impact

While the Act focuses on the safety and health of miners, it provides limited attention to the environmental impacts of mining operations. Modern mining laws increasingly incorporate environmental safeguards to prevent and mitigate the adverse effects of mining on ecosystems and communities. The Act would benefit from more robust provisions on environmental management, including requirements for environmental impact assessments and rehabilitation of mining sites post-operations.

Inadequate Mechanisms for Worker Representation

The Act does not sufficiently empower workers through representation in safety committees or boards. In many jurisdictions, workers’ participation in safety oversight is considered crucial for effective risk management. The inclusion of worker representatives in decision-making processes related to mine safety could enhance compliance and ensure that the concerns of those directly affected by mining operations are adequately addressed.

Enforcement and Compliance Challenges

The Act mandates regular inspections and safety audits by designated inspectors. However, the effectiveness of these measures depends heavily on the availability and capacity of the inspection workforce. If the number of qualified inspectors is insufficient or their training inadequate, enforcement could be lax, undermining the Act’s objectives. Moreover, the Act does not provide clear penalties or consequences for non-compliance, which may reduce its deterrent effect.

Ambiguous Reporting and Investigation Procedures

The Act requires the reporting and investigation of accidents, yet the procedures for these processes are not comprehensively detailed. Specific timelines, steps for investigation, and criteria for determining the cause of accidents are essential to ensure thorough and transparent handling of incidents. Without clear guidelines, there is a risk of inconsistent reporting and inadequate investigation outcomes.

Limited Scope of Health Provisions

Although the Act emphasizes the health and safety of miners, it lacks comprehensive health provisions, particularly regarding long-term health monitoring and support for occupational diseases common in mining. Chronic conditions such as silicosis and pneumoconiosis require ongoing medical attention and support, which the Act does not adequately address. Enhanced medical surveillance and health care provisions would significantly benefit the well-being of miners.


The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mines Safety, Inspection and Regulation Act, 2019, while a commendable effort towards improving mining safety, requires further refinement to address its ambiguities, incorporate modern practices, and ensure robust enforcement. By addressing these critical areas, the Act can more effectively safeguard the health and safety of miners and align with international best practices in mining regulation.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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