Comparison Between the 2009 and 2013 Petroleum Concession Agreements

  1. Q: What are the key differences in the definitions section of the 2009 and 2013 PCAs? A: The 2009 PCA contains definitions specific to the exploration, development, and production of petroleum, such as “Joint Operations,” “Lease,” “Licence,” and “Minimum Work Programme” . The 2013 PCA includes updated definitions that incorporate changes in technology and regulatory practices, reflecting a more modern approach to petroleum operations .
  2. Q: How do the exploration work programme requirements differ between the two agreements? A: The 2009 PCA outlines a detailed exploration work programme, including seismic surveys and drilling commitments . The 2013 PCA introduces more stringent requirements for seismic coverage and drilling wildcat wells, reflecting advancements in exploration technology and a focus on more comprehensive data collection .
  3. Q: What are the relinquishment provisions in both agreements? A: Both agreements include provisions for the relinquishment of areas after certain stages of exploration. The 2009 PCA specifies gradual relinquishment based on exploration results , while the 2013 PCA adds more detailed conditions and timelines for relinquishment to ensure efficient use of the granted areas .
  4. Q: How do the agreements handle the assignment and transfer of interests? A: The 2009 PCA allows for the assignment and transfer of interests with the President’s approval . The 2013 PCA maintains this requirement but adds more specific conditions and documentation needed for approval, ensuring greater transparency and regulatory oversight .
  5. Q: What are the royalty rates and how do they differ? A: The 2009 PCA sets specific royalty rates for petroleum production . The 2013 PCA revises these rates and includes additional guidelines on the administration and utilization of royalties, particularly emphasizing the role of provincial governments in infrastructure development using royalty funds .
  6. Q: How is the disposal of petroleum addressed in both agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes clauses on the disposal of petroleum, focusing on the rights of the working interest owners to market and sell their share of production . The 2013 PCA enhances these provisions by including detailed regulations on the transportation and sale of petroleum, ensuring compliance with national policies and market conditions .
  7. Q: What changes are there in the taxation provisions? A: The 2009 PCA outlines the taxation obligations for companies involved in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA updates these provisions to align with current tax laws and introduces new incentives for investment in the sector .
  8. Q: How are environmental protection measures integrated into the agreements? A: Both agreements include provisions for environmental protection. The 2009 PCA sets general guidelines for minimizing environmental impact . The 2013 PCA significantly expands these provisions, incorporating detailed requirements for environmental assessments, monitoring, and compliance with international standards .
  9. Q: What training and employment requirements are specified in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the training and employment of local personnel in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA strengthens these requirements, mandating specific quotas for local employment and detailed training programs to enhance the skills of Pakistani nationals in the industry .
  10. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of force majeure? A: Both agreements contain force majeure clauses that excuse non-performance due to unforeseen events beyond the control of the parties involved . The 2013 PCA provides a more comprehensive list of force majeure events and clarifies the procedures for notification and resolution during such occurrences.
  1. Q: How is the concept of ‘commercial discovery’ defined in the two agreements? A: In the 2009 PCA, a commercial discovery is defined as a discovery that, upon appraisal, justifies the development and production of petroleum . The 2013 PCA refines this definition to include more specific criteria and economic thresholds, ensuring a clearer framework for what constitutes a commercial discovery .
  2. Q: What are the stipulations for extending exploration licences under the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA allows for the extension of exploration licences based on compliance with the minimum work programme and satisfactory progress . The 2013 PCA introduces stricter criteria for extensions, including detailed justifications and additional work commitments .
  3. Q: How do the agreements handle the confidentiality of information? A: The 2009 PCA includes clauses on maintaining the confidentiality of data and information obtained during petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA expands on these clauses, incorporating specific guidelines on data sharing, storage, and protection against unauthorised access .
  4. Q: What are the requirements for financial guarantees and performance bonds? A: The 2009 PCA mandates the submission of financial guarantees and performance bonds to ensure compliance with the work programme and other obligations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements for these financial assurances, including acceptable forms and conditions for their release .
  5. Q: How are disputes resolved under the two agreements? A: The 2009 PCA outlines basic mechanisms for dispute resolution, including negotiation and arbitration . The 2013 PCA introduces a more structured dispute resolution process, specifying timelines, venues, and the use of international arbitration standards .
  6. Q: What changes have been made to the health and safety regulations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general provisions for health and safety in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA significantly enhances these regulations, introducing comprehensive health and safety standards, regular inspections, and mandatory reporting of incidents .
  7. Q: How is the abandonment and decommissioning of facilities addressed? A: Both agreements include provisions for the abandonment and decommissioning of petroleum facilities. The 2009 PCA provides basic guidelines for these activities . The 2013 PCA elaborates on these requirements, including detailed plans, financial provisions for decommissioning, and environmental restoration obligations .
  8. Q: How do the agreements deal with the rights and obligations of joint venture partners? A: The 2009 PCA includes provisions for joint venture operations, specifying the rights and obligations of each partner . The 2013 PCA further details these arrangements, including governance structures, decision-making processes, and dispute resolution mechanisms within joint ventures .
  9. Q: What are the provisions for local community development? A: The 2009 PCA encourages contributions to local community development through social welfare programs . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating specific contributions and outlining detailed plans for social and economic development projects in the areas affected by petroleum operations .
  10. Q: How are the provisions for surface rentals different in the two agreements? A: The 2009 PCA sets fixed rates for surface rentals during the exploration and production phases . The 2013 PCA revises these rates and includes mechanisms for periodic adjustments based on inflation and other economic factors .
  11. Q: What are the differences in the provisions for transportation and infrastructure development? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for the transportation of petroleum and the development of necessary infrastructure . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements for these activities, including the approval processes for transportation plans and the integration of infrastructure projects with national development goals .
  12. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of flaring and venting of natural gas? A: The 2009 PCA includes general provisions for the minimization of flaring and venting . The 2013 PCA introduces stricter controls and reporting requirements for flaring and venting, aiming to reduce environmental impact and waste of natural resources .
  13. Q: What are the provisions for the utilisation of associated gas? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the utilization of associated gas for commercial purposes . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating the development of utilization plans and providing incentives for the commercial use of associated gas .
  14. Q: How is the issue of national market obligations addressed in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes provisions for fulfilling national market obligations by prioritizing the supply of petroleum to the domestic market . The 2013 PCA enhances these requirements, specifying quotas and mechanisms for ensuring that national market needs are met before exporting petroleum .
  15. Q: What are the changes in the requirements for technical and financial audits? A: The 2009 PCA requires regular technical and financial audits to ensure compliance with the terms of the agreement . The 2013 PCA introduces more rigorous audit requirements, including independent third-party audits and detailed reporting standards .
  16. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of unitisation of petroleum fields? A: The 2009 PCA includes provisions for the unitisation of petroleum fields to ensure efficient resource management . The 2013 PCA elaborates on these provisions, specifying the procedures for unitisation agreements and the role of regulatory authorities in overseeing these arrangements .
  17. Q: What are the requirements for local content and procurement in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the use of local content and procurement of goods and services from Pakistani suppliers . The 2013 PCA mandates specific percentages for local content and procurement, aiming to enhance the participation of local businesses in petroleum operations .
  18. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of insurance for petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general requirements for insurance coverage for petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed guidelines on the types of insurance required, minimum coverage amounts, and the procedures for maintaining and updating insurance policies .
  19. Q: What are the provisions for handling and disposal of hazardous materials? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for the handling and disposal of hazardous materials . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by incorporating international best practices and specifying detailed procedures for the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of hazardous materials .
  20. Q: How do the agreements deal with the issue of local community relations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages good relations with local communities affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for community engagement, including regular consultations, grievance mechanisms, and the development of community benefit programs .
  21. Q: What are the provisions for the management of petroleum resources in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for the management of petroleum resources to ensure sustainable development . The 2013 PCA introduces more detailed requirements for resource management, including the implementation of reservoir management plans and regular monitoring of production activities .
  22. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR)? A: The 2009 PCA encourages companies to engage in corporate social responsibility activities . The 2013 PCA mandates specific CSR initiatives, requiring companies to allocate funds and develop programs that benefit local communities and contribute to sustainable development .
  23. Q: What are the requirements for reporting and disclosure in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes general requirements for reporting and disclosure of information related to petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA enhances these requirements by specifying detailed reporting formats, timelines, and the types of information that must be disclosed to regulatory authorities and the public .
  24. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of gas sales agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes provisions for the negotiation and execution of gas sales agreements . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed guidelines on the terms and conditions of gas sales agreements, including pricing mechanisms and the role of regulatory authorities in approving these agreements .
  25. Q: What are the provisions for dealing with third-party access to infrastructure? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for third-party access to infrastructure such as pipelines and processing facilities . The 2013 PCA introduces more specific requirements for third-party access, including tariff structures, capacity allocation, and dispute resolution mechanisms .
  26. Q: How are the provisions for exploration and production data management different? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for the management of exploration and production data . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements for data management, including the submission of data to regulatory authorities, data sharing among stakeholders, and the protection of proprietary information .
  27. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of state participation in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA allows for state participation in petroleum operations through government-held shares . The 2013 PCA expands on these provisions by specifying the conditions and terms for state participation, including the role of state-owned enterprises and the benefits sharing mechanisms .
  28. Q: What are the provisions for the use of advanced technology in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the use of advanced technology to enhance petroleum exploration and production . The 2013 PCA mandates the use of specific technologies and best practices, ensuring that operations are conducted efficiently and in an environmentally responsible manner .
  29. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of local partnerships and joint ventures? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the formation of local partnerships and joint ventures to enhance local involvement in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA requires companies to form partnerships and joint ventures with local entities, specifying the roles and responsibilities of each party to ensure effective collaboration .
  30. Q: What are the requirements for infrastructure development and maintenance in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for the development and maintenance of infrastructure related to petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed guidelines on infrastructure development, including standards for construction, maintenance schedules, and the integration of infrastructure projects with national development plans .
  1. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of cultural and archaeological preservation? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for the preservation of cultural and archaeological sites affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by requiring comprehensive cultural and archaeological impact assessments and the development of mitigation plans to protect significant sites .
  2. Q: What are the provisions for emergency response and contingency planning? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for emergency response and contingency planning . The 2013 PCA introduces more detailed requirements, including specific emergency response plans, regular drills, and coordination with local and national emergency services .
  3. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of community health and safety? A: The 2009 PCA encourages measures to protect community health and safety in areas affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific health and safety programs, including monitoring of health impacts, provision of healthcare services, and implementation of safety measures to protect local communities .
  4. Q: What are the requirements for environmental impact assessments (EIAs) in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA requires environmental impact assessments to be conducted before the commencement of petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA enhances these requirements by specifying the scope and content of EIAs, including baseline studies, impact analysis, and the development of environmental management plans .
  5. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of transparency and accountability? A: The 2009 PCA includes general provisions for transparency and accountability in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating public disclosure of key information, regular audits, and the establishment of mechanisms for stakeholder engagement and feedback .
  6. Q: What are the provisions for technology transfer and capacity building in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA encourages technology transfer and capacity building to enhance local expertise in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific programs for technology transfer, training, and capacity building, ensuring that local personnel and institutions benefit from the knowledge and skills of international partners .
  7. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of natural resource governance? A: The 2009 PCA includes provisions for the governance of petroleum resources to ensure their sustainable use . The 2013 PCA expands on these provisions by introducing comprehensive governance frameworks, including the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities, mechanisms for stakeholder participation, and guidelines for transparent decision-making processes .
  8. Q: What are the requirements for monitoring and reporting on environmental performance? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for monitoring and reporting on environmental performance . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed guidelines, including the establishment of environmental monitoring programs, regular reporting to regulatory authorities, and public disclosure of environmental performance data .
  9. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of local business development? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the involvement of local businesses in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures to support local business development, including procurement policies favouring local suppliers, capacity building programs, and the promotion of local entrepreneurship .
  10. Q: What are the provisions for decommissioning and site restoration? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for the decommissioning of petroleum facilities and site restoration . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including the development of decommissioning plans, financial provisions for site restoration, and regular inspections to ensure compliance with restoration standards .
  11. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of gas utilisation and monetisation? A: The 2009 PCA encourages the utilisation and monetisation of natural gas resources . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating the development of gas utilisation plans, incentives for gas-based industries, and infrastructure development to support gas monetisation .
  12. Q: What are the requirements for social and environmental impact monitoring? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for monitoring the social and environmental impacts of petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more comprehensive guidelines, including the establishment of impact monitoring programs, regular reporting to regulatory authorities, and public disclosure of monitoring results .
  13. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of local stakeholder engagement? A: The 2009 PCA encourages engagement with local stakeholders affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for stakeholder engagement, including regular consultations, the establishment of community liaison offices, and mechanisms for addressing stakeholder grievances .
  14. Q: What are the provisions for managing biodiversity and ecosystems? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by requiring biodiversity assessments, the development of conservation plans, and the implementation of measures to mitigate impacts on ecosystems .
  15. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of water management in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for water management in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including the development of water management plans, measures to protect water quality, and regular monitoring of water usage and discharge .
  16. Q: What are the provisions for air quality management in the agreements? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing air quality impacts from petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA introduces more stringent requirements, including the monitoring of air emissions, the implementation of emission control technologies, and regular reporting of air quality data .
  17. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of soil contamination and land use? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing soil contamination and land use impacts . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including soil assessments, remediation plans for contaminated sites, and measures to minimise land use changes and restore affected areas .
  18. Q: What are the requirements for noise and vibration management in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing noise and vibration impacts from petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA introduces more specific requirements, including noise and vibration monitoring, the implementation of control measures, and regular reporting of noise and vibration levels .
  19. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of waste management in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing waste generated during petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more comprehensive requirements, including the development of waste management plans, measures for the safe disposal of hazardous waste, and regular reporting of waste management practices .
  20. Q: What are the provisions for managing socio-economic impacts of petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing the socio-economic impacts of petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including socio-economic impact assessments, the development of mitigation plans, and measures to enhance the positive impacts of petroleum operations on local communities .
  21. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of human rights in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages respect for human rights in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures to protect human rights, including policies on labour rights, community rights, and mechanisms for addressing human rights violations .
  22. Q: What are the provisions for managing labour relations and working conditions? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing labour relations and working conditions in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including labour rights policies, health and safety standards, and measures to ensure fair working conditions for all employees .
  23. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of gender equality and inclusion in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages gender equality and inclusion in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures to promote gender equality, including policies on non-discrimination, the promotion of women’s participation in the workforce, and measures to support women’s empowerment in local communities .
  24. Q: What are the requirements for corporate governance and ethics in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for corporate governance and ethical conduct . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including corporate governance frameworks, codes of conduct, and mechanisms for ensuring ethical behaviour and accountability .
  25. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of financial transparency and reporting? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for financial transparency and reporting . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating detailed financial disclosures, independent audits, and the public reporting of financial performance and payments to government .
  26. Q: What are the provisions for managing conflicts of interest in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing conflicts of interest . The 2013 PCA provides more specific requirements, including policies on conflicts of interest, mechanisms for disclosure and management of conflicts, and measures to ensure transparency and accountability .
  27. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of anti-corruption and bribery? A: The 2009 PCA encourages measures to prevent corruption and bribery in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific anti-corruption policies, including procedures for reporting and investigating bribery, training programs on anti-corruption, and mechanisms for ensuring compliance with anti-corruption laws .
  28. Q: What are the requirements for managing stakeholder grievances in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing stakeholder grievances . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including the establishment of grievance mechanisms, procedures for handling complaints, and measures to ensure timely and effective resolution of stakeholder grievances .
  29. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of stakeholder consultation and participation? A: The 2009 PCA encourages consultation and participation of stakeholders in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for stakeholder consultation, including regular engagement sessions, mechanisms for stakeholder input, and measures to ensure that stakeholder concerns are addressed .
  30. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including impact assessments, development of infrastructure plans, and measures to mitigate the negative impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure .
  31. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of compensation for land use and displacement? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for compensation for land use and displacement . The 2013 PCA provides more specific requirements, including compensation policies, procedures for calculating and distributing compensation, and measures to ensure fair and adequate compensation for affected landowners and communities .
  32. Q: What are the requirements for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local economies? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local economies . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including economic impact assessments, development of local economic development plans, and measures to enhance the positive economic impacts of petroleum operations on local communities .
  33. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of cultural heritage protection in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for protecting cultural heritage sites affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by requiring cultural heritage assessments, development of protection plans, and measures to mitigate the impacts of petroleum operations on cultural heritage sites .
  34. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including wildlife and habitat assessments, development of conservation plans, and measures to mitigate the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats .
  35. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of transparency in decision-making processes? A: The 2009 PCA encourages transparency in decision-making processes related to petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for transparency, including public disclosure of decision-making processes, mechanisms for stakeholder input, and measures to ensure that decisions are made in a transparent and accountable manner .
  36. Q: What are the requirements for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on water resources? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on water resources . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including water resource assessments, development of water management plans, and measures to protect water quality and availability .
  37. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of noise pollution from petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing noise pollution from petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA introduces more specific requirements, including noise assessments, implementation of noise control measures, and regular monitoring and reporting of noise levels .
  38. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on air quality? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on air quality . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including air quality assessments, implementation of emission control technologies, and regular monitoring and reporting of air quality data .
  39. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of hazardous materials management? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing hazardous materials used in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including hazardous materials assessments, development of management plans, and measures to ensure the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of hazardous materials .
  40. Q: What are the requirements for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on soil and land use? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on soil and land use . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including soil assessments, development of remediation plans, and measures to minimise land use changes and restore affected areas .
  41. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of waste management in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing waste generated during petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more comprehensive requirements, including the development of waste management plans, measures for the safe disposal of hazardous waste, and regular reporting of waste management practices .
  42. Q: What are the provisions for managing the socio-economic impacts of petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing the socio-economic impacts of petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including socio-economic impact assessments, development of mitigation plans, and measures to enhance the positive impacts of petroleum operations on local communities .
  43. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of human rights in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages respect for human rights in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures to protect human rights, including policies on labour rights, community rights, and mechanisms for addressing human rights violations .
  44. Q: What are the requirements for managing labour relations and working conditions? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing labour relations and working conditions in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including labour rights policies, health and safety standards, and measures to ensure fair working conditions for all employees .
  45. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of gender equality and inclusion in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA encourages gender equality and inclusion in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures to promote gender equality, including policies on non-discrimination, the promotion of women’s participation in the workforce, and measures to support women’s empowerment in local communities .
  46. Q: What are the requirements for corporate governance and ethics in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for corporate governance and ethical conduct . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including corporate governance frameworks, codes of conduct, and mechanisms for ensuring ethical behaviour and accountability .
  47. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of financial transparency and reporting? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic requirements for financial transparency and reporting . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by mandating detailed financial disclosures, independent audits, and the public reporting of financial performance and payments to government .
  48. Q: What are the provisions for managing conflicts of interest in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing conflicts of interest . The 2013 PCA provides more specific requirements, including policies on conflicts of interest, mechanisms for disclosure and management of conflicts, and measures to ensure transparency and accountability .
  49. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of anti-corruption and bribery? A: The 2009 PCA encourages measures to prevent corruption and bribery in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific anti-corruption policies, including procedures for reporting and investigating bribery, training programs on anti-corruption, and mechanisms for ensuring compliance with anti-corruption laws .
  50. Q: What are the requirements for managing stakeholder grievances in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing stakeholder grievances . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including the establishment of grievance mechanisms, procedures for handling complaints, and measures to ensure timely and effective resolution of stakeholder grievances .
  51. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of stakeholder consultation and participation? A: The 2009 PCA encourages consultation and participation of stakeholders in petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for stakeholder consultation, including regular engagement sessions, mechanisms for stakeholder input, and measures to ensure that stakeholder concerns are addressed .
  52. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including impact assessments, development of infrastructure plans, and measures to mitigate the negative impacts of petroleum operations on local infrastructure .
  53. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of compensation for land use and displacement? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for compensation for land use and displacement . The 2013 PCA provides more specific requirements, including compensation policies, procedures for calculating and distributing compensation, and measures to ensure fair and adequate compensation for affected landowners and communities .
  54. Q: What are the requirements for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local economies? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on local economies . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including economic impact assessments, development of local economic development plans, and measures to enhance the positive economic impacts of petroleum operations on local communities .
  55. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of cultural heritage protection in petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for protecting cultural heritage sites affected by petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA strengthens these provisions by requiring cultural heritage assessments, development of protection plans, and measures to mitigate the impacts of petroleum operations on cultural heritage sites .
  56. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including wildlife and habitat assessments, development of conservation plans, and measures to mitigate the impacts of petroleum operations on wildlife and habitats .
  57. Q: How do the agreements handle the issue of transparency in decision-making processes? A: The 2009 PCA encourages transparency in decision-making processes related to petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA mandates specific measures for transparency, including public disclosure of decision-making processes, mechanisms for stakeholder input, and measures to ensure that decisions are made in a transparent and accountable manner .
  58. Q: What are the requirements for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on water resources? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on water resources . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including water resource assessments, development of water management plans, and measures to protect water quality and availability .
  59. Q: How do the agreements address the issue of noise pollution from petroleum operations? A: The 2009 PCA includes general guidelines for managing noise pollution from petroleum operations . The 2013 PCA introduces more specific requirements, including noise assessments, implementation of noise control measures, and regular monitoring and reporting of noise levels .
  60. Q: What are the provisions for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on air quality? A: The 2009 PCA includes basic guidelines for managing the impacts of petroleum operations on air quality . The 2013 PCA provides more detailed requirements, including air quality assessments, implementation of emission control technologies, and regular monitoring and reporting of air quality data .

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