At Josh and Mak International, we pride ourselves on providing thorough and detailed legal advice on regulatory and technical compliance for energy projects. This article provides an exhaustive overview of the technical codes and standards applicable to LNG-related projects in Pakistan, including Floating Storage Regasification Units (FSRU), Floating Storage Units (FSU), onshore LNG storage, and virtual LNG projects. These standards ensure safety, efficiency, and regulatory compliance in the design, construction, and operation of LNG facilities.

Technical Codes and Standards

The technical codes and standards for LNG-related projects encompass a wide range of guidelines and best practices that are internationally recognized. These standards are essential for ensuring the safe and efficient handling of LNG across various stages, from production to storage, transportation, and usage.

Key Standards and Guidelines

Shipping and Marine Facilities Standards:

  1. NFPA 59A:
    • Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) – 2006 by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This standard is critical for ensuring safety in LNG facilities.
  2. BS EN 1473:
    • Installations and Equipment for Liquefied Natural Gas – Design of Onshore Installations – 1997 by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). This standard provides guidelines for the design and construction of onshore LNG installations.
  3. BS EN 1474:
    • Installations and Equipment for Liquefied Natural Gas – Design and Testing of Loading/Unloading Arms – 1996 by CEN. This standard focuses on the equipment used in the transfer of LNG.
  4. BS EN 1532:
    • Installations and Equipment for Liquefied Natural Gas – Ship to Shore Interface for Liquefied Natural Gas – 1996 by CEN. It addresses the interface between LNG carriers and shore facilities.
  5. BS EN 1160:
    • Installations and Equipment for Liquefied Natural Gas – General Characteristics of Liquefied Natural Gas – 1997 by CEN. It outlines the general characteristics of LNG to ensure uniform handling practices.
  6. BS 6349:
    • Maritime Structures – General Criteria and Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems by the British Standards Institution (BSI). This standard ensures safe mooring and docking of LNG carriers.
  7. IMO IGC Code:
    • International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk – IMO-104E. This code provides guidelines for the safe design and construction of LNG carriers.
  8. Lloyd’s Register Guidance Notes:
    • Classification and Certification of Floating Offshore Liquefied Gas Installations and Offshore Gravity Based Liquefied Gas Terminals. These notes offer standards for the classification and certification of floating and gravity-based LNG installations.


  1. SIGTTO:
    • Site Selection and Design for LNG Ports and Jetties – 1997. This guideline assists in selecting and designing ports and jetties for LNG operations.
  2. IMO Recommendations:
    • Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas – 1995 (IMO 290E). These recommendations ensure the safe handling of dangerous cargoes, including LNG, in port areas.
  3. PIANC Guidelines:
    • Dangerous Goods in Ports: Recommendations for Port Designers and Port Operators – 1985. It provides safety recommendations for port designers and operators handling dangerous goods.
  4. OCIMF Guidelines:
    • Mooring Equipment Guidelines – 1996 by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum. This document provides best practices for mooring equipment used in LNG operations.
  5. SIGTTO Guidelines on Safety:
    • Offshore Loading Safety Guidelines with Special Relevance to Harsh Weather Zones – 1999. These guidelines ensure safe offshore loading operations, especially in harsh weather conditions.

Operating Practices:

  1. SIGTTO Accident Prevention:
    • The Use of Hoses and Hard-Arms at Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gas – 1996. This guide focuses on preventing accidents during LNG transfer operations.
  2. IMO Chemical Pollution Manual:
    • Manual on Chemical Pollution; Section 1: Problem Assessment and Response Arrangements – 1987. This manual provides a framework for assessing and responding to chemical pollution incidents involving LNG.
  3. SIGTTO Contingency Planning:
    • A Guide to Contingency Planning for Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gases in Bulk – 1989. It offers strategies for emergency preparedness at marine terminals handling LNG.
    • Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level – 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme. This initiative helps local communities prepare for and respond to LNG emergencies.

Onshore LNG Terminal Standards:

  1. NFPA 59A:
    • Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) – 2006. It ensures safety in onshore LNG production and storage facilities.
  2. API 620 R:
    • Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Appendix R – Low-Pressure Storage Tanks for Refrigerated Products. This standard by the American Petroleum Institute outlines the construction of large LNG storage tanks.
  3. BS 7777:
    • Flat-Bottomed, Vertical, Cylindrical Storage Tanks for Low Temperature Service. This standard ensures the safe design of low-temperature LNG storage tanks.
  4. EEMUA 147:
    • Criteria for Design and Construction of Refrigerated Liquefied Gas Storage Tanks. It provides detailed criteria for building safe LNG storage tanks.

Legal and Operational Implications

Compliance: Adherence to these technical codes and standards is mandatory for ensuring the safety, efficiency, and regulatory compliance of LNG projects. Non-compliance can result in severe legal and financial penalties, as well as increased risk of accidents and operational failures.

Safety and Risk Management: These standards and guidelines are designed to mitigate risks associated with LNG projects. They provide a framework for safe design, construction, and operation, thereby reducing the likelihood of accidents and enhancing overall project safety.

International Standards: By following internationally recognized standards, LNG projects in Pakistan can ensure compatibility with global best practices, facilitating international cooperation and trade.

Regulatory Oversight: Compliance with these standards ensures that LNG projects meet the requirements set by regulatory bodies such as OGRA and other relevant authorities. This oversight helps maintain high safety and operational standards within the industry.


The technical codes and standards for LNG-related projects in Pakistan provide a comprehensive framework for ensuring safety, efficiency, and regulatory compliance. At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to assisting our clients in navigating these complex standards, ensuring that their projects adhere to the highest safety and operational criteria. For detailed advice and support on LNG projects, please contact our expert team.

By The Josh and Mak Team

Josh and Mak International is a distinguished law firm with a rich legacy that sets us apart in the legal profession. With years of experience and expertise, we have earned a reputation as a trusted and reputable name in the field. Our firm is built on the pillars of professionalism, integrity, and an unwavering commitment to providing excellent legal services. We have a profound understanding of the law and its complexities, enabling us to deliver tailored legal solutions to meet the unique needs of each client. As a virtual law firm, we offer affordable, high-quality legal advice delivered with the same dedication and work ethic as traditional firms. Choose Josh and Mak International as your legal partner and gain an unfair strategic advantage over your competitors.

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