The Regulation of Generation, Transmission, and Distribution of Electric Power Act, 1997 (hereinafter referred to as the “NEPRA Act”), is a pivotal legislative instrument aimed at governing the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power in Pakistan. This Act was promulgated to ensure the orderly development of electric power services, enhance efficiency, and promote fair competition in the electric power sector.

Scope and Applicability

The NEPRA Act extends to the entire territory of Pakistan, including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA), as stipulated under Sections 1 and 2 of the Act. It provides the legal framework within which the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) operates, focusing on the regulation, oversight, and development of the electric power market to foster transparency and efficiency.

Establishment and Structure of NEPRA

Under Chapter II of the Act, NEPRA is established as a corporate body with perpetual succession and a common seal, empowered to acquire and hold property, and to sue and be sued in its name (Section 3). The Authority comprises a Chairman and four specialized members appointed by the Federal Government, representing different provinces to ensure a balanced geographical representation. The members are selected based on their expertise in areas such as corporate finance, electrical engineering, corporate law, and public policy, ensuring a comprehensive regulatory approach.

Powers and Functions of NEPRA

NEPRA is vested with extensive powers and functions under Section 7 of the Act, including but not limited to:

  1. Licensing: Granting licenses for generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. This includes ensuring that licensees comply with the specified technical and operational standards.
  2. Tariff Regulation: Determining and approving tariffs for electric power services to ensure fair pricing and protect consumer interests while maintaining the financial viability of the power sector.
  3. Performance Standards: Establishing and enforcing performance standards for licensees to ensure reliability, efficiency, and safety in the provision of electric power services.
  4. Dispute Resolution: Acting as an adjudicator in resolving disputes between licensees and other stakeholders in the power sector.
  5. Policy Advisory: Advising the Federal Government on the formulation and implementation of national electricity policies and plans, ensuring alignment with international commitments and environmental sustainability goals.

Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Licenses

The Act delineates specific provisions for licensing generation (Section 14B), transmission (Sections 16-19), and distribution (Sections 20-23) of electric power:

  • Generation License: Any entity intending to construct, own, or operate a generation facility must obtain a license from NEPRA. The application must detail the type, location, and expected life of the facility. Special considerations are given to hydroelectric projects to ensure they do not adversely affect water resources or public utilities.
  • Transmission License: Only one national grid company license is granted at any time, responsible for providing non-discriminatory transmission services. Provincial grid companies can also be licensed to operate within their respective territories, promoting decentralized transmission management.
  • Distribution License: Distribution companies are licensed to ensure they provide electric power to consumers within their designated service territories. They must publicly disclose their tariffs and meet performance standards set by NEPRA.

Appellate Tribunal

Chapter IIA introduces the establishment of an Appellate Tribunal to hear and decide appeals against decisions made by NEPRA. The Tribunal consists of a former High Court judge as Chairman and members with expertise in finance and electricity. This ensures an independent and fair appellate mechanism, enhancing accountability within the regulatory framework.

National Electricity Policy and Plan

Chapter IIB mandates the Federal Government, in consultation with NEPRA, to develop and periodically revise a National Electricity Policy and Plan. This policy framework aims to optimize resource utilization, integrate provincial transmission systems, and foster a sustainable renewable energy market, reflecting Pakistan’s commitment to international environmental agreements.

Enforcement and Compliance

NEPRA is empowered to enforce compliance with its regulations, including conducting investigations, imposing penalties, and issuing prohibition orders for violations (Chapter IIIA). This robust enforcement mechanism ensures adherence to regulatory standards and promotes a fair and transparent electric power market.


The NEPRA Act, with its comprehensive regulatory provisions, plays a critical role in shaping the electric power sector in Pakistan. It aims to ensure the reliable, efficient, and fair provision of electric power services, fostering sustainable development and protecting consumer interests. For detailed inquiries and assistance regarding compliance and licensing under the NEPRA Act, stakeholders are encouraged to consult with legal experts at Josh and Mak International.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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