The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) established the Complaint Handling and Dispute Resolution (Procedure) Rules, 2015, to provide a structured process for addressing complaints and resolving disputes within the electric power sector. These rules are designed to ensure transparency, fairness, and efficiency in dealing with grievances between consumers and licensees, as well as among licensees. This article provides a detailed overview of these rules and critiques their effectiveness and areas for improvement.

Key Provisions of the NEPRA Complaint Handling and Dispute Resolution (Procedure) Rules, 2015

  1. Scope and Definitions:
    • The rules apply to complaints filed by any person, including provincial governments and licensees, against a licensee for contraventions of the Act, orders, rules, regulations, licenses, or instructions issued by NEPRA.
    • Key terms such as “complaint,” “complainant,” “respondent,” and “tribunal” are defined to provide clarity.
  2. Filing of Complaints:
    • Complaints must be filed in writing, detailing the name, address, and particulars of the complainant, the facts and grounds of the complaint, the contravention alleged, the relief sought, and the actions taken by the respondent.
    • Complaints must be filed within one year from the accrual of the cause of action. Before approaching NEPRA, complainants must first seek resolution from the respondent, who must respond within fifteen days.
  3. Registration and Notice:
    • NEPRA examines complaints within seven working days to ensure they conform to the specified requirements. If not, they are returned for amendment.
    • Once a complaint is in conformity, it is registered, and a notice is issued to the respondent, who must reply within the time specified by NEPRA.
  4. Investigation and Site Inspection:
    • NEPRA examines the contentions of both parties and may seek further information or documents. If necessary, NEPRA may direct a site inspection to gather additional evidence.
    • A tribunal may be constituted to adjudicate complaints involving classes of consumers, tariff modifications, or contractual disputes between licensees.
  5. Interim and Final Orders:
    • NEPRA may issue interim orders during the proceedings as deemed fit. A final decision is rendered after providing an opportunity for a hearing to the parties.
    • Aggrieved parties may file a review petition within thirty days of the final order, which NEPRA decides in accordance with the Review Procedure Regulations, 2009.
  6. Penalties:
    • NEPRA may impose fines on persons or licensees found in contravention of the Act, rules, regulations, or directions. Non-compliance may lead to further enforcement actions under the NEPRA (Fines) Rules, 2002.

Critique of NEPRA’s Complaint Handling and Dispute Resolution (Procedure) Rules, 2015

  1. Complexity and Bureaucracy:
    • The process outlined for filing and handling complaints is detailed but can be perceived as overly complex and bureaucratic. The requirement for initial resolution attempts with the respondent, followed by formal registration and multiple stages of review, may discourage complainants due to the perceived burden and time involved.
    • The need for precise documentation and adherence to procedural requirements can be daunting for ordinary consumers, particularly those with limited legal knowledge or resources.
  2. Timeliness and Efficiency:
    • While the rules specify timelines for various stages of the complaint handling process, delays can still occur, particularly in the investigation and site inspection phases. The 15-day period for the initial response by the respondent and the subsequent review by NEPRA can extend the resolution timeline.
    • The constitution of a tribunal for specific types of complaints, while beneficial for thorough adjudication, can further prolong the resolution process, impacting the timely redressal of grievances.
  3. Access and Awareness:
    • The rules assume a level of awareness and access among consumers that may not exist uniformly. Many consumers, especially in rural areas, may not be aware of their rights under these rules or the procedures to file a complaint.
    • There is a need for more robust consumer education and outreach initiatives to ensure that all consumers are aware of their rights and the complaint resolution mechanisms available to them.
  4. Transparency and Accountability:
    • While the rules aim to ensure transparency in the handling of complaints, the actual implementation can sometimes fall short. There are concerns about the transparency of NEPRA’s decision-making processes and the consistency in applying penalties and fines.
    • The rules provide for internal review mechanisms, but there is limited external oversight or independent review of NEPRA’s decisions, which could enhance accountability and fairness.
  5. Enforcement and Compliance:
    • The effectiveness of the penalty provisions depends on NEPRA’s willingness and ability to enforce them consistently. There are instances where non-compliance by licensees is not adequately addressed, leading to repeated violations and consumer dissatisfaction.
    • The linkage between penalties and consumer compensation is weak, meaning that even when fines are imposed, consumers may not see direct benefits or redress for their grievances.


The NEPRA Complaint Handling and Dispute Resolution (Procedure) Rules, 2015, provide a structured framework for addressing grievances in the electric power sector. While these rules are comprehensive and aim to ensure fair and efficient resolution of disputes, their complexity, potential for delays, and issues with transparency and enforcement present significant challenges. Enhancing consumer awareness, simplifying procedures, ensuring timely resolution, and improving enforcement mechanisms are essential steps towards a more effective complaint handling and dispute resolution process. For detailed guidance and assistance on navigating these regulations, stakeholders are encouraged to consult with legal experts at Josh and Mak International.

By The Josh and Mak Team

Josh and Mak International is a distinguished law firm with a rich legacy that sets us apart in the legal profession. With years of experience and expertise, we have earned a reputation as a trusted and reputable name in the field. Our firm is built on the pillars of professionalism, integrity, and an unwavering commitment to providing excellent legal services. We have a profound understanding of the law and its complexities, enabling us to deliver tailored legal solutions to meet the unique needs of each client. As a virtual law firm, we offer affordable, high-quality legal advice delivered with the same dedication and work ethic as traditional firms. Choose Josh and Mak International as your legal partner and gain an unfair strategic advantage over your competitors.

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