The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015, along with their subsequent amendments, establish the framework for the registration and regulation of market operators within Pakistan’s electric power sector. These rules ensure that market operators adhere to specific standards and procedures, thereby promoting a competitive and efficient power market. This article provides a comprehensive overview of these rules and their amendments, highlighting their key provisions and offering a critical analysis.

Key Provisions of the NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015

  1. Scope and Definitions:
    • The rules apply to entities seeking to act as market operators within the electric power sector. They define key terms such as “Act,” “commercial code,” “market operator,” and “market operations,” ensuring clarity in their application.
  2. Registration of Market Operator:
    • Entities desirous of being registered as market operators must submit an application to the Registrar, accompanied by various documents, including the memorandum and articles of association, details of financial and technical resources, and a draft commercial code.
    • The Registrar examines the application to ensure conformity with the requirements. Upon satisfaction, the application is accepted, and the entity is registered as a market operator.
  3. Market Operator Authorization:
    • For an initial period of two years, the Central Power Purchasing Agency (Guarantee) Limited (CPPA-G) is deemed authorized and registered as the market operator, subject to submitting and getting approval for the commercial code.
  4. Renewal of Registration:
    • The registration certificate is valid for twenty years and is renewable upon payment of the specified fee and meeting the terms and conditions set by NEPRA.
  5. Powers to Suspend or Cancel Registration:
    • NEPRA can suspend or cancel the registration of a market operator if it fails to discharge its functions in accordance with the rules or acts against the interests of market participants. Measures may include appointing an administrator to take over operations.
  6. Obligations and Reporting:
    • Market operators must submit annual reports detailing their operations, changes in management or ownership, and any defaults or penalties. They must also maintain confidentiality and comply with the commercial code.
  7. Financial and Organizational Requirements:
    • The rules outline strict financial and organizational requirements, including maintaining accurate records and preparing audited accounts.

Amendments to the NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015

The 2015 amendments introduced several significant changes to enhance the regulatory framework:

  1. Public Hearing Requirement:
    • Rule 3 was amended to require a public hearing before approving any draft commercial code or subsequent revisions, ensuring greater transparency and stakeholder engagement.
  2. Authority to Amend Commercial Code:
    • NEPRA was granted the power to amend, revise, and modify the commercial code, subject to a public hearing, if the market operator fails to act in the interests of market participants.
  3. Additional Grounds for Suspension or Cancellation:
    • Specific events that constitute a failure to comply with obligations were detailed, including financial instability, incorrect statements, and defaults in payment, providing clearer grounds for regulatory action.
  4. Enhanced Accountability:
    • New provisions were added to ensure market operators are held accountable for breaches of the commercial code, with explicit penalties and consequences for non-compliance.

Critique of the NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015

  1. Complexity and Administrative Burden:
    • The application and registration process is detailed and requires substantial documentation. This complexity can deter new entrants, particularly smaller entities, from participating in the market.
  2. Public Hearing Requirements:
    • While public hearings enhance transparency, they can also introduce delays in the approval process for the commercial code and its amendments. This can slow down the implementation of necessary changes and improvements.
  3. Financial and Organizational Strain:
    • The stringent financial and organizational requirements may pose challenges for market operators, especially those with limited resources. The need for extensive reporting and audited accounts adds to the administrative burden.
  4. Enforcement and Compliance Challenges:
    • The effectiveness of the enforcement mechanisms depends on NEPRA’s ability to consistently apply penalties and take corrective actions. Inconsistent enforcement can undermine the credibility of the regulatory framework.
  5. Transparency and Stakeholder Engagement:
    • While the amendments aim to improve transparency, the actual implementation of these provisions needs to be monitored closely. Ensuring genuine stakeholder engagement in public hearings is essential for building trust and consensus.
  6. Operational Independence:
    • The rules grant significant authority to NEPRA to intervene in the operations of market operators. While this is necessary for regulatory oversight, it can also impact the operational independence of market operators if not balanced carefully.

Critical Analysis of NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015 and their Amendments


The NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015, along with their amendments, establish the regulatory framework for market operators in Pakistan’s electric power sector. While these rules aim to ensure a competitive and efficient market, there are several areas where they fall short. This analysis critiques these rules, highlighting their complexities, inefficiencies, and potential areas for improvement.

Critique of NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015

  1. Complexity and Administrative Burden:
    • The application process for market operator registration is highly detailed and requires extensive documentation, including financial, technical, organizational, and human resource details. This complexity can be a significant barrier for new entrants, particularly smaller entities or startups, discouraging competition and innovation.
    • The need for multiple stages of review, including examination by the Registrar and potential amendments, adds to the administrative burden and can cause delays in the registration process. The extensive paperwork and procedural requirements can be daunting for applicants.
  2. Public Hearing Requirements:
    • The requirement for public hearings before approving the draft commercial code and any amendments is intended to enhance transparency and stakeholder engagement. However, this process can introduce significant delays, slowing down the implementation of necessary regulatory changes and adaptations.
    • The effectiveness of public hearings depends on the genuine participation of stakeholders, which can be challenging to ensure. There is a risk that these hearings may become mere formalities, lacking substantive input and engagement from diverse stakeholders.
  3. Financial and Organizational Strain:
    • The stringent financial and organizational requirements for market operators can be burdensome. The rules demand proof of adequate financial, technical, and organizational resources, which may be challenging for smaller entities to demonstrate.
    • Continuous compliance with these requirements, including maintaining accurate records and preparing audited accounts, adds to the operational costs and administrative workload of market operators. This can divert resources away from core business activities and innovation.
  4. Enforcement and Compliance Issues:
    • The rules grant NEPRA significant authority to enforce compliance, including the power to suspend or cancel registrations, appoint administrators, and amend the commercial code. While these powers are necessary for regulatory oversight, their application can be inconsistent, leading to uncertainty and potential disputes.
    • The criteria for enforcement actions, such as suspension or cancellation of registration, can be somewhat subjective. This subjectivity can result in perceived or actual inconsistencies in how penalties and corrective measures are applied.
  5. Operational Independence:
    • The extensive regulatory oversight and the power to appoint administrators to take over market operations can impact the operational independence of market operators. While regulatory intervention is necessary to safeguard market integrity, excessive interference can hinder the ability of market operators to make autonomous business decisions.
    • The balance between regulatory oversight and operational independence is delicate. Over-regulation can stifle innovation and responsiveness, while under-regulation can lead to market abuses and inefficiencies.
  6. Transparency and Accountability:
    • While the rules aim to ensure transparency through detailed reporting and public hearings, the actual implementation of these provisions can be inconsistent. The mechanisms for ensuring accountability and transparency need to be robust and consistently applied to build stakeholder trust.
    • There is a need for greater transparency in how NEPRA makes its decisions, particularly regarding the approval of commercial codes and the application of penalties. Clear and consistent communication of regulatory decisions is essential to maintain market confidence.
  7. Impact on Market Dynamics:
    • The rules aim to transition the power market towards a competitive regime, but the phased approach outlined in the market design can lead to prolonged periods of uncertainty. The timeline for transitioning from a Single Buyer Model to a competitive market needs to be clear and adhered to avoid market disruptions.
    • The existing market participants, including CPPA-G, hold significant influence, which can impact the competitive dynamics. Ensuring a level playing field for new entrants is crucial to fostering competition and innovation in the market.


The NEPRA (Market Operator Registration, Standards and Procedure) Rules, 2015, and their amendments provide a comprehensive regulatory framework for market operators in Pakistan’s electric power sector. However, their complexity, administrative burden, and enforcement challenges present significant issues. Addressing these concerns through streamlined procedures, consistent enforcement, and enhanced stakeholder engagement can improve the effectiveness of these rules. A balanced approach that ensures robust regulatory oversight while fostering competition and innovation is essential for the sustainable development of Pakistan’s power market. For detailed guidance and assistance on navigating these regulations, stakeholders are encouraged to consult with legal experts at Josh and Mak International.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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