The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) (Fines) Rules, 2002, establish a framework for imposing fines on entities that violate the provisions of the Regulation of Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power Act, 1997, or any applicable documents issued by NEPRA. These rules are designed to ensure compliance and accountability within the electric power sector. The 2014 amendment to these rules introduced significant changes to the fines structure. This article provides a detailed overview of the NEPRA (Fines) Rules, 2002, and their amendments, highlighting their key provisions and implications.

NEPRA (Fines) Rules, 2002

  1. Scope and Definitions:
    • The rules apply to all entities involved in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power in Pakistan. They define key terms such as “delinquent,” “fine,” and “sum due,” providing a clear framework for their application.
    • The “delinquent” is defined as a person adjudged by NEPRA to be in violation of the Act or applicable documents.
  2. Imposition of Fines:
    • NEPRA is empowered to impose fines on delinquents up to the maximum amounts specified in the First Schedule. The fines are intended to be proportional to the gravity of the violation.
    • The fines can be imposed in addition to or in lieu of other penalties prescribed under the applicable documents.
  3. Procedure for Imposing Fines:
    • When NEPRA becomes aware of a potential violation, the Registrar is required to seek an explanation from the concerned party within fifteen days.
    • The party must admit or deny the violation within fifteen days. If admitted, NEPRA may either remit the fine or proceed to impose it.
    • If the violation is denied or the explanation is deemed unsatisfactory, NEPRA issues a show cause notice specifying the alleged violation, the proposed fine, and the time for submitting a response.
    • After reviewing the response, NEPRA may either accept the explanation and close the matter or reject it, declaring the party delinquent and imposing the fine.
  4. Review and Recovery:
    • Delinquents may apply for a review of NEPRA’s decision within seven days of receiving the decision. NEPRA must decide on the review within seven days.
    • If fines or fees are declared payable, they become “sum due” and are recoverable as arrears of land revenue. A notice of demand is issued, and failure to comply results in recovery actions by the Collector of the Islamabad Capital Territory.
  5. Enforcement Mechanisms:
    • NEPRA can request the Collector to attach or sell the properties of the delinquent to recover the sum due. Garnishees (third parties owing money to the delinquent) can be directed to pay the sums into a designated account.
    • Proclamations can be issued in newspapers to prevent payments to the delinquent and direct them to the designated account until the sum due is satisfied.

Amendment (S.R.O. 734(I)/2014)

The 2014 amendment significantly increased the fines and introduced new structures for calculating ongoing violations. Key changes include:

  1. Enhanced Fine Structure:
    • The amendment replaced the First Schedule, significantly increasing the fines for various violations. For instance, the fine for generating, transmitting, or distributing electric power without a license was raised to up to Rs. 100 million for the first day of occurrence and up to Rs. 500,000 per day for continuing violations.
  2. Detailed Violation Categories:
    • The amendment categorized violations more clearly and specified fines for each category, including breaches of license provisions, applicable documents, and unauthorized tariff charges.
  3. Indexation of Fines:
    • Fines are now indexed to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) published by the Federal Bureau of Statistics. This ensures that fines remain relevant and effective over time, adjusting for inflation and economic changes.
  4. Calculation and Payment:
    • Fines are calculated from the date of violation to the date of payment, excluding the period during which proceedings are pending before NEPRA. This provision ensures that fines are substantial and serve as effective deterrents.

Critique of the NEPRA (Fines) Rules and Amendments

  1. Proportionality and Fairness:
    • While the increased fines enhance regulatory enforcement, there is a concern about proportionality. The substantial fines may disproportionately impact smaller entities or new entrants, potentially discouraging investment in the sector.
    • The rules provide limited guidance on mitigating factors or the discretion of NEPRA in reducing fines based on specific circumstances, which could lead to perceived unfairness or inconsistency.
  2. Administrative Burden:
    • The procedural requirements for imposing fines are comprehensive but may also be cumbersome, potentially leading to delays in enforcement actions. The necessity for detailed explanations, show cause notices, and multiple opportunities for review can slow down the process.
    • The involvement of multiple authorities, such as the Collector of the Islamabad Capital Territory, in the recovery process adds layers of administrative complexity.
  3. Transparency and Clarity:
    • Although the rules aim to ensure transparency in enforcement, the processes can be opaque to those unfamiliar with regulatory procedures. Clearer guidelines on how fines are determined and enforced could improve understanding and compliance.
    • The indexing of fines to CPI is a positive step, but the formula and its application may not be well understood by all stakeholders, necessitating better communication and education.
  4. Impact on Compliance:
    • The threat of substantial fines may enhance compliance, but it could also lead to adversarial relationships between NEPRA and the entities it regulates. A balanced approach combining strict enforcement with support for compliance improvement might be more effective.


The NEPRA (Fines) Rules, 2002, and their amendments are crucial for maintaining compliance and accountability in Pakistan’s electric power sector. While the enhanced fines and detailed procedures introduced by the 2014 amendment strengthen regulatory enforcement, there are areas for improvement in terms of proportionality, administrative efficiency, and transparency. For entities operating in the sector, understanding these rules and adhering to compliance requirements is essential to avoid significant financial penalties. For further guidance and assistance on navigating these regulations, stakeholders are encouraged to consult with legal experts at Josh and Mak International.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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