The Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act 2022 represents a significant legislative effort by the Pakistani government to create a favorable environment for foreign investments, particularly in strategic sectors such as oil and gas. This act, coupled with the amendments introduced in the Finance Bill 2023, provides a comprehensive framework aimed at promoting large-scale foreign investments while ensuring their protection.

Pertinent Sections of the Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 2022

Tax Exemptions and Incentives

The Act provides comprehensive tax exemptions to encourage foreign investments. These exemptions include:

  1. Section 44A of the Income Tax Ordinance, 2001, which exempts taxes on income, capital gains, advance tax, withholding taxes, minimum, and final taxes for qualified investments as specified in the Second and Third Schedules of the Act.
  2. Exemption for Investors and Associates: The Act extends these tax exemptions to investors, their associates, and companies listed in the schedules, including third-party lenders related to any loans, ensuring a broad scope of financial incentives.

Specific Provisions for the Oil and Gas Sector

The Act particularly impacts the oil and gas sector through several key provisions:

  1. Income Tax Exemptions: The exemptions under Section 44A significantly benefit companies involved in the exploration and production of petroleum by reducing their tax liabilities, thereby improving the financial viability of their projects.
  2. Windfall Tax Regulation: Under Section 99D, the federal government is empowered to impose an additional tax on windfall profits arising from economic factors such as international price fluctuations of oil and gas. This provision ensures that while companies benefit from high international prices, the state can also secure a fair share of extraordinary profits.

Regulatory Framework and Legal Certainty

The Act provides a stable and predictable regulatory environment:

  1. Guarantee of Non-Nationalization: The Act assures that foreign investments will not be subject to expropriation or nationalization, except under exceptional circumstances that warrant compensation at market value.
  2. Dispute Resolution Mechanism: It includes provisions for the settlement of disputes through arbitration, ensuring that foreign investors have access to a fair and impartial legal recourse.

Impact on Oil and Gas Law

The integration of the Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 2022, with Pakistan’s oil and gas law framework enhances the attractiveness of the sector to foreign investors by:

  1. Increasing Financial Viability: The tax exemptions reduce operational costs for foreign oil and gas companies, making Pakistan a more competitive destination for investment in energy projects.
  2. Encouraging Technological Investment: By providing financial incentives, the Act encourages foreign companies to bring advanced technology and expertise, which is crucial for exploring and developing Pakistan’s oil and gas resources efficiently.
  3. Ensuring Policy Stability: The clear legal framework and protection against arbitrary changes in policy increase investor confidence, which is essential for long-term investments in the oil and gas sector, known for its significant initial capital outlay and long development timelines.

In conclusion, the Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 2022, plays a pivotal role in bolstering foreign investment in Pakistan’s oil and gas sector. By offering extensive tax exemptions, ensuring regulatory stability, and providing robust legal protections, the Act aligns with the broader objectives of Pakistan’s petroleum policies to enhance domestic production, reduce reliance on imports, and foster economic growth.

This comprehensive client information article by Josh and Mak International highlights the critical aspects of the Act and its beneficial impact on the oil and gas sector, showcasing our commitment to keeping our clients well-informed and strategically positioned to leverage these legislative advancements.

Key Provisions of the Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act 2022

The Act outlines several crucial elements that impact foreign investments in the oil and gas sector:

  1. Protection of Qualified Investments:
    • The Act empowers the Federal Government to notify and protect qualified investments, ensuring that these investments are insulated from adverse legislative changes. The criteria for qualifying investments include a minimum investment threshold of US$ 500 million, though the government retains discretion to approve smaller investments if deemed beneficial to the national interest​​.
  2. Tax Exemptions and Incentives:
    • A pivotal aspect of the Act is the introduction of significant tax incentives. Under the amended Finance Bill 2023, Section 44A of the Income Tax Ordinance 2001 was introduced, providing tax exemptions on income, including capital gains, advance tax, withholding taxes, minimum, and final taxes for qualified investments as specified in the Act’s schedules. This aims to enhance the attractiveness of Pakistan’s investment landscape for foreign investors​​.
  3. Stability of Investment Terms:
    • The Act ensures that the terms of investment, particularly the protected benefits, cannot be unilaterally altered to the detriment of the investor. This includes guarantees against retrospective legislative changes that could adversely affect the investment​​.
  4. Implementation Mechanisms:
    • The Act mandates the creation of a streamlined and simplified procedural framework for the approval and implementation of investment projects. This includes the establishment of one-window facilities and the promotion of investment information dissemination to enhance transparency and ease of doing business​​.
  5. Investment Ombudsman:
    • An investment ombudsman is appointed to resolve disputes and ensure that the rights of investors are protected. This role is critical in maintaining investor confidence and providing a reliable mechanism for addressing grievances​​.

Connection with Oil and Gas Law

The provisions of the Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act 2022 have significant implications for the oil and gas sector in Pakistan:

  1. Enhanced Fiscal Stability:
    • The oil and gas sector, being capital-intensive and high-risk, benefits immensely from the fiscal stability provided by the Act. The guaranteed tax exemptions and the protection of investment incentives from withdrawal ensure that investors can plan long-term projects with greater confidence in the stability of the financial environment​​.
  2. Facilitation of Large-Scale Projects:
    • The Act is designed to attract large-scale investments, which are typical in the oil and gas industry. By setting a substantial investment threshold and offering robust protections, the Act facilitates the entry and operation of major international oil companies (IOCs) and other large investors in Pakistan’s oil and gas sector​​.
  3. Regulatory and Operational Clarity:
    • The streamlined procedures and the establishment of one-window facilities reduce bureaucratic hurdles and provide clarity and efficiency in regulatory approvals. This is particularly beneficial for oil and gas operations that require multiple regulatory clearances and can be delayed by complex bureaucratic processes​​.
  4. Alignment with International Standards:
    • The Act aligns Pakistan’s investment framework with international standards, making it more attractive to global investors. The protections and incentives provided are comparable to those in other major oil and gas producing countries, thereby enhancing Pakistan’s competitiveness as an investment destination​​.
  5. Support for Sustainable and Responsible Investment:
    • The inclusion of environmental and social governance (ESG) considerations within the investment incentives ensures that foreign investments in the oil and gas sector contribute to sustainable development. This is crucial in attracting responsible investment from IOCs that adhere to global ESG standards​​.


The Foreign Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act 2022, along with the subsequent amendments in the Finance Bill 2023, marks a strategic effort by Pakistan to enhance its attractiveness as a destination for foreign investment, particularly in the vital oil and gas sector. By providing comprehensive protections and incentives, the Act not only encourages the inflow of substantial foreign capital but also aligns Pakistan’s investment climate with international best practices. For stakeholders in the oil and gas industry, this legislative framework offers a stable, predictable, and conducive environment for undertaking significant investments, thereby contributing to the country’s economic growth and energy security.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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