The Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948

The Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948, commonly referred to as Act No. XXIV of 1948, serves as a fundamental legal framework governing the exploration, extraction, and development of mineral resources in Pakistan. Enacted on January 8, 1949, this Act underscores the critical importance of state regulation in the strategic sector of mineral development, ensuring the alignment of mining activities with national interests.

Overview and Objectives

The primary objective of the Act is to provide a comprehensive regulatory mechanism for the exploration and development of mines and oilfields, emphasizing government control to safeguard public interest. Recognizing the sector’s significance, the Act delineates specific provisions to regulate various aspects of mineral development, including the grant of licences, imposition of royalties, and control over production and distribution.

Key Provisions

1. Short Title, Extent, and Commencement

The Act is officially titled “The Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948.” It extends to the entirety of Pakistan and comes into force on a date appointed by the Central Government through notification in the official Gazette.

2. Power to Make Rules

The Act empowers the appropriate Government to formulate rules for regulating matters related to mineral exploration and development. These rules cover:

  • The process and authority for granting or renewing exploration or prospecting licences, mining leases, and other concessions, including the associated fees.
  • Conditions for granting or renewing such licences and leases, and the forms for their execution.
  • Circumstances under which renewals may be refused or existing licences, leases, or concessions may be revoked.
  • Determination of royalties, rents, and taxes payable by licensees, lessees, and grantees.
  • Refinement of ores and mineral oils.
  • Control of production, storage, and distribution of minerals and mineral oils.
  • Price fixation for buying or selling minerals and mineral oils.
  • Any ancillary or incidental matters.

3. Penalties

The Act allows the appropriate Government to prescribe penalties for breaches of the rules made under it. Such breaches may be punishable with imprisonment for up to three years, fines, or both.

4. Production Sharing Agreement

A significant amendment introduced the concept of Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs). Under this provision:

  • The President may enter into agreements with any company (domestic or foreign) for the grant of licences or leases based on PSAs.
  • Companies engaged in such agreements are exempt from paying income tax on their profits and gains.

5. Concessions to Petroleum Exploration Companies

The Act provides specific concessions to petroleum exploration companies, including:

  • Additional concessions specified in the Schedule, alongside those available under other laws.
  • The Federal Government retains the authority to amend the Schedule to enhance or add new concessions.

6. Effect of Rules

Rules and orders made under the Act have overriding effect, ensuring their primacy over any inconsistent provisions in other enactments or instruments.

7. Power to Exempt

The appropriate Government can declare exemptions for any mineral or mineral oil from the provisions of the rules made under the Act, specifying the conditions for such exemptions.

8. Definition of Appropriate Government

The Act distinguishes the appropriate Government as follows:

  • For mines of nuclear substances, oilfields, and gasfields, the Central Government.
  • For other mines and mineral development, the Provincial Government.

Implementation and Impact

The implementation of the Act has been pivotal in structuring Pakistan’s mineral development sector. By centralizing regulatory control, the Act ensures that mineral resources are developed in a manner that benefits the national economy while providing a stable legal framework for both local and international investors. The introduction of PSAs and tax exemptions has particularly enhanced the attractiveness of the sector, fostering increased foreign investment and technological advancement.


The Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948, remains a cornerstone of Pakistan’s mineral regulatory framework. For entities involved in or considering entry into the mining and oilfield sectors, understanding the provisions of this Act is crucial. Josh and Mak International stands ready to provide expert legal guidance to navigate the complexities of this Act, ensuring compliance and optimizing the benefits derived from Pakistan’s rich mineral resources.

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Case Analysis: 2004 SCMR 576

Background: The case involves Messrs Pioneer Cement Ltd (Appellant) versus the Secretary, Industries, and Mineral Development Department, Lahore (Respondent). The central issue pertains to the increase in the rate of royalty for the lease of mining limestone, which the government imposed. Pioneer Cement Ltd challenged this increase through a constitutional petition which the High Court dismissed. The appellant then sought leave to appeal in the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Key Legal Provisions Involved:

  1. Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948
    • Section 2: Authorises the government to frame rules regarding the regulation of mines and mineral development.
    • Section 3: Empowers the government to make rules that may include the imposition of penalties for non-compliance.
  2. Constitution of Pakistan (1973)
    • Article 185(3): Pertains to the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
    • Article 199: Relates to the jurisdiction of the High Courts in matters involving the enforcement of fundamental rights.

Court’s Findings:

  1. Authority of the Government:
    • The court affirmed that Section 2 of the 1948 Act authorises the government to frame rules concerning mineral development, including setting royalty rates.
    • Section 3 further empowers the government to include provisions for penalties within these rules.
  2. Contractual Obligations:
    • The petitioner, under its contract, was bound to comply with all provisions of the Punjab Mining Concession Rules, 1990.
    • This obligation included the payment of all applicable taxes, rates, and royalties to the government.
  3. Judicial Review:
    • The High Court dismissed the constitutional petition challenging the increase in royalty rates.
    • Upon review, the Supreme Court found no illegality in the High Court’s judgment, thus upholding the decision to dismiss the petition for leave to appeal.

Implications of the Judgment:

  1. Validation of Governmental Authority:
    • The Supreme Court’s decision reinforces the government’s authority to regulate mineral development and impose royalties as per the statutory provisions.
    • This judgment underscores the binding nature of contractual obligations on mining companies to adhere to government-imposed rates and taxes.
  2. Judicial Deference to Regulatory Frameworks:
    • The court’s decision reflects judicial deference to the regulatory frameworks established by the government, provided these frameworks operate within the bounds of statutory authority.
    • It signals the judiciary’s reluctance to interfere with governmental discretion in setting economic and regulatory policies within the mineral sector.
  3. Compliance with Regulatory Rules:
    • Entities engaged in mineral development must ensure strict compliance with the applicable rules and regulations, including those concerning financial obligations to the government.
    • The case highlights the importance for companies to be fully aware of and prepared to meet their legal and contractual obligations as stipulated by relevant mining concession rules.

Conclusion: The Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Messrs Pioneer Cement Ltd versus the Secretary, Industries, and Mineral Development Department, Lahore, upholds the government’s right to regulate and impose royalties within the mining sector under the 1948 Act. It reinforces the principle that companies engaged in mineral development are contractually and legally bound to comply with government regulations and financial obligations as per the mining concession rules. This case serves as a crucial precedent for future disputes concerning governmental regulatory authority and the obligations of mining leaseholders.

Historical Context and Amendments

Soon after its creation, Pakistan enacted the Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948. This Act provided a comprehensive framework for granting petroleum rights, ensuring that all petroleum found within the territorial jurisdiction of Pakistan is owned by the Government of Pakistan. Over the years, this Act has undergone several amendments in 1955, 1964, and 1976 to adapt to the evolving needs of the sector and to incorporate legislative changes.

Federal Government’s Role

Under the Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948, the federal government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is designated as the appropriate authority in relation to mines of nuclear substances, oilfields, and gas fields. The federal government has the power to make rules for various aspects, including applications, conditions, and prescribed forms for the grants and renewals of exploration licenses and mining leases. This includes setting rates and conditions for royalties, rents, and taxes to be paid by licensees and lessees, controlling the production, storage, and distribution of minerals and mineral oil, and determining the prices at which petroleum is sold to the Government.

Petroleum Concession and Production Sharing Agreements

The Act empowers the Federal Government to enter into Petroleum Concession Agreements (PCAs) and Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with petroleum companies. These agreements detail the concessions available to holders of a lease or license to explore, prospect, and mine for petroleum. The Petroleum Concession Agreements executed with the Government of Pakistan contain all concessions enumerated in the Act’s schedule of concessions.

Rules Promulgated Under the Act

In accordance with the Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948, the federal government has promulgated various rules over time, including:

  1. Pakistan Petroleum (Production) Rules, 1949
    • Promulgated to promote and regulate petroleum exploration, development, and production.
    • Provided detailed forms of exploration licenses, prospecting licenses, and mining leases.
    • Superseded by the Pakistan Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Rules, 1986.
  2. Pakistan Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Rules, 1986
    • Current rules for promoting and regulating petroleum exploration, development, and production.
    • Amended in 1988, 1993, and 2000 to stay relevant with industry developments.
  3. Natural Gas Rules, 1960
    • Govern the transmission, distribution, and use of natural gas.
  4. Natural Gas (Price for Supplies by Producers) Rules, 1976
    • Fix prices for gas supplies made to government-owned gas distribution companies.
  5. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Production and Distribution) Rules, 1971
    • Relate to the licensing and regulation of LPG products.
  6. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (Production and Marketing) Rules, 1992
    • Relate to the licensing and regulation of compressed natural gas.

Importance of Historical Rules

While the Pakistan Petroleum (Production) Rules, 1949 have been superseded, they remain relevant for petroleum rights granted under Pre-1986 Petroleum Concession Agreements. Several mining leases granted pursuant to these agreements are still active, owned by companies that the government is currently trying to privatize or divest from, such as Oil and Gas Development Company Limited, Pakistan Petroleum Limited, and Pakistan Oilfields Limited.

Current and Future Developments

New rules are being prepared for regulating operations under the Offshore Production Sharing Agreement. These rules are expected to be notified by the third quarter of the year 2000, reflecting the ongoing efforts to modernize the regulatory framework governing Pakistan’s petroleum sector.


The Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development (Government Control) Act, 1948, along with its subsequent amendments and rules, provides a robust legal framework for the exploration, development, and production of petroleum resources in Pakistan. By ensuring governmental control and regulation, the Act aims to manage these valuable resources efficiently and sustainably, benefiting the country’s economy and securing its energy future.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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