Technical terms in Pakistani Land Revenue and Property (Urdu , Persian and Arabic)Technical terms in Pakistani Land Revenue and Property (Urdu , Persian and Arabic)

At Josh and Mak International, we understand the importance of clarity and effective communication when dealing with clients requiring guidance on Pakistani Land Property records and we aim provide them with a better understanding of the legal landscape.Therefore we have compiled a comprehensive guide to commonly used Urdu, Persian and Arabic legal and technical terms in land revenue law in Pakistan. Please note that this is a non-exhaustive list and is intended to serve as a helpful resource or reference only.

While this guide provides a basic understanding of the commonly used Urdu, Persian and Arabic legal and technical terms in land revenue law, it is essential to consult with experienced legal professionals to navigate the complexities of land-related matters in Pakistan. At Josh and Mak International, we offer specialized legal services to assist our clients in understanding and effectively dealing with land revenue law issues. Our knowledgeable team is ready to provide expert advice and guidance tailored to your specific needs. Contact us today at aemen@joshandmak.com to schedule a consultation and explore how we can assist you in land revenue matters in Pakistan.

For a list of English terms and their meanings you can click here 

December 14 , 2023 

  • Moorosi Land: This term refers to hereditary land. In the Pakistani context, ‘Mauroosi’ is used to describe occupancy tenants whose rights are heritable and can even be sold with the consent of the landlord​​.
  • Survey Land: Typically, this would refer to land that has been surveyed officially to determine its boundaries and area for official records. However, the specific term ‘Survey Land’ does not appear in the source, and it might be used locally to denote land that has been demarcated and recorded through a formal survey process.
  • Shamilat Land: Refers to common land within a revenue estate, which is further divided based on distribution criteria such as the amount of land revenue paid, the area of land owned, or the shares indicated in the Genealogical Tree (Shajra Nasab)​​.

November 15, 2023 : Status of Gol Kara in Pakistani land law 

“Gol Kara,” in the context of property and land ownership in Pakistan, refers to a traditional, informal way of demarcating land or property. It’s a term used in rural areas, particularly in the context of agricultural land. The phrase “Gol Kara” literally translates to “making round” or “encircling,” and it pertains to a method of identifying and demarcating land boundaries.

In the Gol Kara system, the boundaries of a piece of land are marked by physically walking around it. This is often done in the presence of community members, neighbors, and sometimes local officials. The process is typically accompanied by certain rituals or formalities, which may vary from region to region. The idea is to create a physical and social acknowledgment of the boundaries and, by extension, the ownership of the land.

Determining ownership in the Gol Kara system is largely based on communal recognition and historical possession rather than formal documentation. It relies heavily on the collective memory and acknowledgment of the local community. The community’s recognition of an individual’s or family’s longstanding possession and use of the land serves as the primary evidence of ownership. This method, while deeply rooted in local tradition and social practices, can sometimes lead to disputes due to its informal and non-documentary nature.

In legal terms, however, the Gol Kara system lacks the formal legitimacy provided by official land records, such as registry or mutation documents (Intiqal) in Pakistan. The formal process of land registration and title deeds is crucial for legal recognition and protection of property rights. This is particularly important in cases of disputes or for engaging in legal transactions like selling or mortgaging the property.

We advise clients on the necessity of formal land registration and documentation. While the Gol Kara system is an interesting aspect of traditional land demarcation, reliance on it alone can lead to legal complications. Therefore, it’s advisable for property owners to ensure their land is formally registered and documented in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of Pakistan.There is also no mention of Gol Kara or its recognition in any reported case law.

November 11, 2023 Legal Note: Understanding the Terms in Land Records: Khewat, Khatooni, Khasra Number etc.

  1. Mouza: This is a larger unit, typically comprising one large village or a combination of several smaller villages. The name of the Mouza is registered based on the name of the village or area.
  2. Khewat Number: Once a Mouza is established, it includes lands belonging to many people and families. To simplify the division of these lands, Khewat numbers are assigned. For example, if a family owns one hundred acres, a number is assigned to indicate that this particular Khewat number in the Mouza belongs to this family. A Khewat can also be formed by combining lands of different families or individuals. This number may change if any land is sold or any other changes occur.
  3. Khatooni Number: After the formation of the Mouza and assignment of Khewat numbers, there are numerous owners within a Khewat. To identify the specific landholding of each individual within the Khewat, each share is assigned a Khatooni number. For instance, if there are ten acres in Khewat number 1 with two owners each holding five acres, they will be assigned separate numbers, known as Khatooni numbers. These numbers also change if someone sells their share or other changes take place.
  4. Khasra Number: In the example of the Khatooni with five acres (though the actual number may vary), each acre is given a specific number known as the Khasra number. This number never changes, even if the land is sold. The dimensions of each land plot, including length and breadth, are also recorded under its Khasra number.
  5. Masavi (Shajra): This is a map of the Mouza, detailing where each field is located, along with paths and other features. The Patwari (village accountant) keeps this map on a cloth, often referred to as ‘Latha’.
  6. Jamabandi: This record details the ownership within a Mouza for a particular Khewat, Khatooni, and Khasra. It includes information on who owns the land and who is cultivating it, whether on lease or otherwise. Land ownership certificates are issued based on the details in this register.
  7. Girdawari: This is a record maintained by the Patwari, detailing what is being cultivated on the land or what has been cultivated. It is referred to as Girdawari.

Important Note: Always purchase land based on the Khasra number. For instance, suppose a person owns two acres with Khewat number 1, Khatooni number 5, and Khasra number 50 for one acre, and Khatooni number 10 with Khasra number 100 for the second acre. If you intend to buy one acre, and choose the one with Khasra number 50, ensure that the sale deed is specifically for this Khasra number. Otherwise, legally, you could end up owning half an acre each in Khasra number 50 and 100. Even if the seller is allowing you to cultivate the desired Khasra number 50, future disputes may arise among descendants about the specific land ownership. This example is for two acres, but it often happens with larger landholdings, leading to complications later. Therefore, always verify thoroughly before purchasing land.

Recent query 5th of September 2023

What is the meaning of  Khatooni /Purcha Taqseem?

In Pakistan, “Khatooni” or “Purcha Taqseem” refers to a record or document that contains information about the ownership and distribution of land or property within a specific area or village. It is a crucial part of the revenue record system in rural and agricultural areas. Khatooni records typically include the following information:

Land Ownership Details: Khatooni records list the names of individuals or entities who own land within a particular village or area. It specifies the size and boundaries of each landholding, as well as the names of the owners.

Nature of Land: The document may indicate whether the land is agricultural, residential, commercial, or falls under some other category. This classification helps in determining land use and tax assessment.

Distribution of Land: Khatooni records also show how the land is distributed among the various landowners. It may detail the shares and portions of land owned by each individual or family.

Tax Assessment: These records are used for assessing land revenue and property taxes. The government relies on the information in Khatooni records to determine the tax obligations of landowners.

Mutation and Land Titles: Changes in land ownership, whether due to inheritance, sale, or other transactions, are recorded in Mutation entries based on the information in Khatooni records. Mutation records are crucial for establishing legal ownership of land.

Land Rights: Khatooni records can be important evidence of land rights and claims. They establish a historical record of landownership and can be used to resolve disputes related to landownership and boundaries.

It’s important to note that Khatooni records are typically maintained by revenue authorities at the local level and play a vital role in land administration and revenue collection. These records are essential for landowners, as they provide documentation of land rights and ownership. Additionally, they serve as a reference for government agencies when assessing land taxes and resolving land-related issues.

The case with Citation Name: 2018 MLD 151 Karachi-High-Court-Sindh provides insights into the significance of “Khatooni/Purcha Taqseem” records in the context of land ownership disputes in Pakistan.

In the case with Citation Name: 2018 MLD 151 Karachi-High-Court-Sindh, the key points and outcome can be summarized as follows:

Legal Framework: The case was based on provisions from several legal statutes, including the Transfer of Property Act (1882), Qanun-e-Shahadat (1984), and the Sindh Land Revenue Act (1967).

Nature of the Suit: This case centered around a suit for specific performance, meaning that the appellant, Nazeer Ahmed, sought to enforce a sale agreement with the vendor, claiming ownership based on Khatooni/Purcha Taqseem records.

Contention of the Appellant: Nazeer Ahmed, the plaintiff, contended that he had entered into a sale agreement with the vendor, who possessed a Khatooni in his favor. Nazeer Ahmed argued that he had paid earnest money, and the sale agreement was bona fide.

Contention of the Opponent: The defendants, who were the owners in possession of the land, denied the deceased vendor’s title, stating that he was not in possession of the land, and the Khatooni was not mutated in the record-of-rights.

Legal Protections Under Section 41: The case highlighted the importance of Section 41 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, which provides protection to bona fide purchasers for value without notice of any defect in the title of the transferor. To avail of this protection, four conditions must be met, including acting in good faith and taking reasonable care.

Failure to Establish Bona Fides: The court found that the plaintiffs failed to establish their bona fides. They did not take reasonable care to investigate the ownership history of the land, which disentitled them to claim the exception under Section 41 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882.

Void Contract: The court emphasized that the sale agreement with the deceased vendor was void because he did not have legal ownership of the land. Consequently, the relief of specific performance was not available for a “void” agreement.

Khatooni as Evidence: The case clarified that a Khatooni is not a title document but a register of individuals cultivating or occupying land. It must be supported by mutation in the record-of-rights as per the Land Revenue Act, 1967, which was not established by the plaintiffs or Revenue Officials.

Outcome: In summary, the court dismissed the revision, affirming the lower court’s judgment. The plaintiffs were unable to establish the validity of their sale agreement based on Khatooni/Purcha Taqseem records, as the deceased vendor did not have legal ownership, and the necessary legal procedures were not followed. The court ruled that the alleged contract was void, and the relief of specific performance was not available.

Overall, this case highlights the importance of thoroughly verifying land ownership, even when relying on Khatooni records, and the legal consequences of transactions with individuals who do not have valid title to the property.

Here are the key takeaways from this case:

  1. Khatooni/Purcha Taqseem as Evidence: The case underscores that Khatooni or Purcha Taqseem records are considered important evidence in land-related matters. These records contain information about landownership and distribution within a specific area or village.
  2. Legal Ownership and Mutation: The case highlights that legal ownership of land is not solely established by the presence of a Khatooni or Purcha Taqseem in the name of an individual or entity. Instead, it emphasizes that ownership must also be confirmed through the process of mutation in the official record-of-rights.
  3. Importance of Bona Fide Purchase: The case underscores the importance of bona fide transactions in land dealings. It suggests that when individuals enter into sale agreements based on Khatooni records, they should ensure that their purchase is genuine and in good faith.
  4. Protection Under Section 41: Section 41 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 is mentioned in the case. It provides protection to bona fide purchasers for value without notice of any defect in the title of the transferor. However, to avail of this protection, certain conditions, including acting in good faith and taking reasonable care, must be met.
  5. Verification of Land Ownership: The case emphasizes the need for purchasers to verify the ownership and title of the land beyond the existence of a Khatooni or Purcha Taqseem. In this case, the applicants/plaintiffs failed to establish their bona fides because they did not take reasonable care to investigate the ownership history.
  6. Void Contracts: The case highlights that transactions with individuals who do not have legal ownership of the land can result in void contracts. In such cases, the relief of specific performance may not be available.
  7. Lis Pendens: The principle of lis pendens, which refers to the rule that pending litigation affects the rights of third parties, may not apply when there is already an existing independent title. This means that a purchaser cannot claim rights over a property if they were aware of an independent title held by another party.
  8. Role of Revenue Officials: The case mentions that Revenue Officials are custodians of Khatooni records and that someone claiming title based on Khatooni must establish the entry/mutation in the official record-of-rights, as maintained under the Land Revenue Act, 1967.
  9. Decision Outcome: In this specific case, the court concluded that the sale agreement was void because the vendor did not have legal ownership of the land. Therefore, the relief of specific performance was not granted to the applicants/plaintiffs.

Overall, the case serves as a reminder that while Khatooni/Purcha Taqseem records can provide initial information about landownership, they must be supported by proper legal procedures, including mutation in the official record-of-rights, to establish and protect land ownership rights effectively. Failure to do so can lead to disputes and legal challenges.

Update (July 27, 2023)

Message for those having a problem reading Fard-Nama and other property documents in Pakistani which are primarily in Urdu.

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Message in Urdu 

زمین کے کھاتوں میں موضع کھیوٹ کھتونی خسرہ نمبر مساوی (شجرہ) جمعبندی گردآوری اور دیگر اصلاحات کیا ہیں؟ تفصیلات 1- موضع : یہ ایک بڑا یونٹ ہوتا ہے جو عموماَ ایک بڑے گاؤں یا ایک سے زیادہ چھوٹے گاؤں کو ملا کر بنایا جاتا ہے۔ موضع کا نام اس گاؤں یا ایریا کے نام پر ہی درج ہوتا ہے ۔ 2- کھیوٹ نمبر: جب موضع بن جاتا ہے تو اس میں بہت سارے لوگوں اور خاندانوں کی زمین شامل ہوتی ہے اس کی تقسیم مزید آسان بنانے کے لیے کھیوٹ نمبر دے دیے جاتے ہیں، مثلا یہ ایک سو ایکڑ ایک خاندان کے پاس ہے اسے ایک نمبر دے دیا کہ فلاں موضع کا یہ کھیوٹ نمبر ہے جو فلاں خاندان کے ان ان حصہ داروں کے پاس ہے۔ یا مختلف خاندانوں یا لوگوں کی زمین کو ملا کر بھی ایک کھیوٹ بنایا جاتا ہے۔ اس کا نمبر تبدیل ہو سکتا ہے جب کوئی زمین فروخت کرتا ہے یا ایسی کوئی تبدیلی ہوتی ہے تو آپ کے کھیوٹ کا نمبر بدل جاتا ہے۔ 3- کھتونی نمبر: موضع بھی بن گیا، اس میں کھیوٹ نمبر بھی لگ گئے اب کھیوٹ میں بہت سارے مالکان ہیں کسی کے پاس پانچ ایکڑ ہے کسی کے پاس دس اور کسی کے پاس دو ایکڑ تو ان کو کیسے پہچانے گے کہ اس کھیوٹ میں کونسے بندے کی کتنی زمین ہے تو اس کے لیے ہر حصہ دار کو ایک کھتونی نمبر لگا دیا جاتا ہے۔ مثلا کھیوٹ نمبر 1 میں دس ایکڑ زمین ہے اور دو مالک ہیں پانچ پانچ ایکڑ کے تو ان دونوں کو الگ الگ نمبر دے دیا جائے گا پانچ پانچ ایکڑ کا جسے کھتونی نمبر کہتے ہیں۔ یہ نمبر بھی تبدیل ہوتا رہتا ہے جب کوئی اپنے حصے سے فروخت کر دے کسی کو یا ایسی کوئی دوسری تبدیلی ہو۔ 4- خسرہ نمبر: اب ایک کھتونی میں جو پانچ ایکڑ تھے (جو ہم نے مثال میں لیے پانچ ایکڑ، حقیقت میں ان کی تعداد جو بھی ہو گی) ہر ایکڑ کو ایک خاص نمبر دیا جاتا ہے جو خسرہ نمبر کہلا تا ہے۔ یہ نمبر کبھی تبدیل نہیں ہوتا چاہے کوئی فروخت کرے مگر کھیت کا خسرہ نمبر ایک ہی رہے گا۔ اور اس میں کھیت کی چاروں طرف سے پیمائش بھی لکھی ہوتی ہے کہ اس خسرہ نمبر کا جو کھیت ہے اس کی لمبائی چوڑائی وغیرہ کیا ہے۔ 5- مساوی: (شجرہ) یہ موضع کا نقشہ ہوتا ہے، کہاں کس کا کھیت ہے کہاں راستہ ہے کہاں کیا ہے سب اس میں ہوتا ہے۔ پٹواری کے پاس یہ نقشہ ایک کپڑے پر بنا ہوتا ہے جسے لٹھا بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ 6- جمعبندی: اس میں ایک موضع کے کسی کھیوٹ کی کسی کھتونی کے کس خسرہ میں کتنے مالک ہیں سب کی تفصیل درج ہوتی ہے۔ اس میں یہ بھی درج ہوتا ہے کہ مالک کون ہے اور زمین کاشت کون کر رہا ہے ٹھیکہ پر یا کیسے۔ زمین کی فرد بھی اسی رجسٹر کی تفصیل کی بنیاد پر جاری ہوتی ہے۔ 7- گردوری: آپ جس رقبہ کے مالک ہیں یا مزارع ہیں اس رقبہ میں کیا کاشت ہوتا ہے یا کیا کاشت کیا ہوا ہے اس کی تفصیل بھی پٹواری درج کرتا ہے اسے گردوری کہتے ہیں۔ اہم نوٹ: زمین خریدتے وقت ہمیشہ خسرہ نمبر کی فرد کی بنیاد پر زمین خریدیں۔ مثلا فرض کریں ایک بندہ دو ایکڑ کا مالک ہے اس کا کھیوٹ نمبر 1 اور اس کے دو ایکڑ کھیوٹ نمبر 1 کی الگ الگ کھتونی نمبر 5 خسرہ نمبر 50 اوردوسرا ایکڑ کھتونی نمبر 10 میں خسرہ نمبر 100 ہیں۔ آپ اس سے ایک ایکڑ خریدنا چاہتے ہیں اور وہ آپ جو پسند کرتے ہیں اس کا خسرہ نمبر 50 ہے مگر اسے فرد اس 50 نمبر خسرہ کی نہیں بلکہ پوری رقبے کی کھیوٹ سے ملتی ہے جس میں وہ آپ کے نام ایک ایکڑ کروا دیتا ہے تو اب قانوناَ آپ اس کے دونوں ایک میں خسرہ نمبر 50 اور خسرہ نمبر 100 میں آدھے آدھے ایکڑ کے مالک بن جائیں گے اور اگر خسرہ نمبر 50فرد ہی آپ کو دے گا تو اس کی بنیاد پر وہی ایکڑ پورا آپ کے نام لگے گا۔ بیشک وہ آپ کو آپ کا پسند کیا ہوا خسرہ نمبر 50 ہی کاشت کے لیے دے رہا ہو مگر مستقبل میں آپ کے بچوں میں جھگڑا ہو سکتا ہے کہ آپ کے یا اس کے بچے کہیں آپ کا آدھا ایکڑ یہاں بول رہا ہے یہاں جاؤ ہمارا وہاں ہے ہم وہاں جائیں گے وغیرہ۔ یہ تو دو ایکڑ کی مثال تھی اکثر ایسا ہوتا ہے کہ کسی زیادہ ایکڑ کے مالک سے زمین خرید لیں تو بعد میں وہ کہتا ہے کہ میں نے یہ ایکڑ نہیں بلکہ کوئی دوسرا دیا تھا لہذا اسے کاشت کرو جا کر وہ چاہے بنجر ہو۔ اس لیے زمین لینے سے پہلے تسلی کر لیا کریں۔

Message in English

In Pakistani land records:

1- Mauza: It is a large administrative unit formed by combining several villages or small settlements. The name of the mauza is usually based on the name of the village or area.

2- Khewat Number: When a mauza is established, it includes the lands of many individuals and families. To simplify its distribution, khewat numbers are assigned. For example, if a mauza contains 100 acres and belongs to a particular family, it will be given Khewat Number 1, indicating that it belongs to that specific family. Different lands owned by various families or individuals may also be combined to form a single khewat.

3- Khatauni Number: Once a mauza is established and assigned khewat numbers, each khewat contains the lands of multiple owners. To identify the individual plots within a khewat, khatauni numbers are assigned. For example, in Khewat Number 1, there might be 10 acres owned by one person, 5 acres by another, and 2 acres by yet another. Each individual’s plot is distinguished by a khatauni number. These numbers may change when a land is sold or undergoes other changes.

4- Khasra Number: Within each khatauni, each acre of land is given a specific identifier called the khasra number. This number remains constant and does not change even if the land is sold. The khasra number also contains measurements of the plot’s length, width, etc.

5- Musavi (Map): This is a map of the mauza, showing the location of each khewat, roads, and other features.

6- Jamabandi: Jamabandi is a record that contains details of all the khewats, khataunis, and khasra numbers of a mauza. It also includes information about the owners and the type of crops cultivated.

7- Girdawari: Girdawari is a record that lists the name of the landowners and farmers in a specific area, along with the details of the crops grown or currently being cultivated.

Important Note: When purchasing land, always buy based on the khasra number. For example, if someone owns 2 acres with Khewat Number 1, and within that, they have 1 acre with Khatauni Number 5 and Khasra Number 50, and another acre with Khatauni Number 10 and Khasra Number 100. If you want to buy one acre from them, and they give you the acre with Khasra Number 50, then legally, you will own half of Khatauni Number 5, and if the other person has given you Khasra Number 100, you will own the entire acre within Khatauni Number 10. Therefore, it is essential to verify and confirm all the details before purchasing land.

Updated  (July -1-2023) : Glossary of Land Revenue Terms in Urdu and English:

These are the updated glossary terms with their respective English meanings. This glossary covers various terms related to land revenue, land ownership in Pakistan, agriculture, and other administrative procedures involved in the management of revenue estates. It provides valuable information and explanations for individuals involved in land management, revenue collection, and agricultural practices in the context of Urdu-speaking regions.

  1. محال (Revenue Estate)
    • Any area for which a separate record of rights has been made.
    • Any area which has been separately assessed to land revenue.
    • Any area declared to be an estate by the Board of Revenue through general rule or special order.
  2. گاؤں / موضع (Village)
    • A settlement or inhabited site of a village.
  3. آبادی دیہہ / آبادی (Inhabited site of a village)
    • A residential area or settlement within a village.
  4. لال لکیر (Boundary Line / Lal Lakir)
    • A boundary line that marks the limit of village Abadi in the field map (Musavi).
    • It is drawn in black ink and is known as “lal lakir.”
  5. مساوی (Map of Estate)
    • A map of the revenue estate prepared on a mapping sheet.
  6. شجرہ کشتوار (Field Map of a Revenue Estate)
    • A detailed map of a revenue estate showing individual fields.
  7. شجرہ پارچہ (Field Map of a Revenue Estate for Patwari)
    • A field map of a revenue estate prepared on cloth for the use of the village Patwari.
  8. تتمہ شجرہ (Supplementary Map)
    • A supplementary map prepared in the mutation register and “Musavi do murabba wali” when a portion of Khasra No. changes.
  9. من نمبر خسرہ (Portion of a Field / Khasra Number)
    • A portion or subdivision of a field identified by a Khasra number.
  10. سہ حدہ (Tri-Junction Pillars)
    • Pillars erected at points where the boundaries of three or more Revenue Estates meet.
  11. بُرجی (Survey Pillars)
    • Small survey pillars erected between two Tri-junction pillars at every angle on the boundary line.
  12. ٹھاک بست (Verification of Boundaries)
    • The process of verifying the distance between Tri-junction and survey pillars on the field using a “Jareeb” (chain) and on a field map using “Paimana” (patwari scale).
  13. کرہ کان یا کرم کان (Length and Breadth of a Field)
    • The dimensions of a field, representing its length and breadth.
  14. لام پیٹ (Method of Calculating Area)
    • A method of calculating the area of irregular fields by taking the average of length and breadth.
  15. مسل حقیقت (Record of Rights)
    • A record prepared as a result of settlement, consolidation, and killa bandi operation, documenting rights and ownership details.
  16. مسل میعادی (Periodical Record)
    • A revised edition of the Record of Rights prepared after every four years.
  17. شجرہ نسب مالکان (Genealogical Tree of Landowners)
    • A genealogical tree that traces the ownership history of land in a revenue estate, usually divided into parts A and B.
  18. نمبر حد بست (Numbering of Revenue Estates)
    • Serial number given to every Revenue Estate of a Tehsil by the Settlement Officer.
  19. نمبر کھیوٹ / کھاتہ (Serial Number for Owners)
    • Serial number allotted to owners in the Register Haqdaran Zamin (Land Ownership Register).
  20. نمبر کھتونی (Serial Number for Cultivators)
    • Serial number allotted to cultivators in the Register Haqdaran Zamin (Land Ownership Register).
  21. کھتونی نہر (Cultivation Statement)
    • A statement prepared by canal Patwaris for each harvest, showing the area cultivated, land revenue, and water rate to be recovered.
  22. کھتونی چٹھہ یا کھتونی پیمائش (Holding Slips)
    • Rough preliminary documents prepared during settlement or consolidation operations of an estate before the preparation of the Record of Rights.
  23. پرچہ کھتونی (Memorandum of Holding Slips)
    • A memorandum or copy of holding slips given to owners and cultivators for verification and record.
  24. کھتونی تحصیل (Register of Government Dues)
    • A register maintained by Wasal Baqi Nawis in each Tehsil Office showing head-wise demand, recovery, and balance of Government dues relating to each Lamberdar (headman).
  25. ادنٰی مالک (Inferior Owner)
    • Landowners who, after the implementation of Land Reforms, became owners of the land.
  26. اعلٰی مالک (Superior Owner)
    • Landowners who became extinct after the implementation of Land Reforms.
  27. مالک قبضہ (Owner with No Rights in Shamlat Deh)
    • An owner of the land who has no rights in the common land (Shamlat Deh) of the revenue estate.
  28. مشتری بخانہ کاشت (Vendee in Cultivation Column)
    • A vendee whose name is shown in the cultivation column of the Register Haqdaran Zamin but not in the owners’ column.
  29. رہن (Mortgage with Possession)
    • A type of mortgage where the mortgager retains possession of the property.
  30. آڑ رہن یا مکفول الرہن (Mortgage without Possession)
    • A type of mortgage where the mortgagee does not have physical possession of the property.
  31. راہن (Mortgager)
    • The person who mortgages the property.
  32. مرتہن (Mortgagee)
    • The person who receives the mortgaged property.
  33. دخیلکار مورثی یا مستقل (Occupancy Tenants)
    • Tenants who, due to the implementation of Land Reforms, have acquired almost the rights of ownership.
  34. مزارعہ تابعمرضی (Tenant-at-will)
    • Tenants who do not have permanent rights and can be removed at any time.
  35. واجب العرض (Village Administration Papers)
    • Statements of customs respecting rights and liabilities in the estate, prepared during settlement.
  36. نقل شرط واجب العرض (Copy of Village Administration Papers)
    • Copy of some conditions from the village administration papers.
  37. شاملات دیہہ (Common Land of Revenue Estate)
    • Common land in a revenue estate, divided into three types based on distribution criteria
  1. شاملات دیہہ حسب رسد زر کھیوٹ (Common Land Distributed based on Land Revenue)
  • A common land of the revenue estate distributed among the owners based on the amount of land revenue they pay.
  1. شاملات دیہہ حسب رسد کھیوٹ (Common Land Distributed based on Area)
  • A common land of the revenue estate distributed among the owners based on the area of land they possess.
  1. شاملات دیہہ حسب حصص جدی (Common Land Distributed based on Genealogical Tree)
  • Common land distributed based on the shares already given in the Genealogical Tree (شجرہ نسب) under the column “Paimana Haqiat (پیمانہ حقیقت).”
  1. پتی / طرف / ٹھُلہ (Sub-division of Estate)
  • A sub-division of the estate representing a specific section or part.
  1. پرتہ (Rate Of Land Revenue)
  • The rate at which land revenue is calculated and paid.
  1. باچھ (Distribution of Revenue over Holding)
  • The allocation of revenue among the landowners or landholders based on their respective holdings.
  1. ڈھال باچھ (Statement of Demands for Recovery)
  • A statement showing the names and amounts of government dues recoverable from landowners to be given to the Lambardar (headman) for recovery in each harvest.
  1. فرد باچھ / فرد تفریق باچھ / فرد ڈھال باچھ (Individual Statements of Demands)
  • A statement showing land revenue and other cases realizable from each individual holding (کھیوٹ).
  1. نزول لینڈ (Escheated Land)
  • Land or building escheated to the government due to the failure of heirs.
  1. طلبانہ (Charge for Serving Summons)
  • The fee charged for serving a summons.
  1. دستک (Notice of Demand)
  • A notice sent to demand the payment of land revenue.
  1. قرق تحصیل (Attachment of Defaulters’ Land)
  • A coercive process under Section 85 of the Land Revenue Act, 1967, where the land of a defaulter is attached due to arrears of land revenue.
  1. خام تحصیل (Direct Management of Defaulters’ Land)
  • The direct management of a defaulter’s land by the government after the annulment of assessment under Section 86 of the Land Revenue Act, 1967.
  1. فصل خریف (ساونی) (Autumn Harvest)
  • Crops sown during the period from 1st April to 31st May and inspected in October. Main crops include چاول، مکئی، کپاس، کماد، باجرہ.
  1. زائد خریف (Extra Autumn Harvest)
  • Extra autumn harvest inspected from 15th November to 30th November. Main crops include آلو، توریا.
  1. فصل بیعہ (ہاڑی) (Spring Harvest)
  • Crops sown during the period from 15th September to 15th November and inspected in March. Main crops include جو، گندم، تارامیرا (سرشف)، سرسوں(نخود)، چنے.
  1. زائد ربیعہ (Extra Spring Harvest)
  • Extra spring harvest inspected from 15th April to 30th April. Main crops include تھوم، تمباکو، تربوزہ، خربوزہ.
  1. کنکُوت یاکَن (Appraisement of Crops)
  • The assessment of the yield from standing crops.
  1. پنجوترہ (فیس نمبرداری) (Panchayat Fee)
  • A fee paid to the Lambardar (headman) out of the government dues collected and deposited by him.
  1. عرض ارسال (Memorandum for Deposit)
  • A memorandum given by the Patwari to the Lambardar showing the head-wise amount of Government dues taken to the Tehsil for depositing into the treasury.
  1. سیاہ (Cash Account)
  • The daily cash account of a Tehsil.
  1. سیاہ نویس (Clerk for Cash Account)
  • The clerk responsible for writing up the Siah (سیاہ).
  1. فرد رفتار (Crops Inspection Program)
  • The crops inspection program prepared by the Patwari, showing the dates on which he will carry out Girdawari of a particular village of his circle.
  1. جنسوار (Statement/Return of Crops)
  • The statement or return of crops for a particular harvest.
  1. وتر (بدستور) (Diagonal Line in Register Girdawari)
  • The diagonal line in Register Girdawari indicating no change in cultivation and rent.
  1. چاہی (Land Irrigated by Well)
  • Land irrigated by a well.
  1. نل چاہی (Land Irrigated by Tube-well)
  • Land irrigated by a tube-well.
  1. تقادی (Government Loan for Agricultural Purposes)
  • A loan granted by the government to a landowner for agricultural purposes.
  1. چٹھہ جات (Rough Preliminary Documents)
  • The rough preliminary documents prepared during settlement operations before the preparation of the Record of Rights (مسل حقیقت).
  1. قسط بندی (Fixed Land Revenue Demand)
  • The demand statement of fixed land revenue.
  1. شریک کاشت (سیری) (Co-sharer Cultivator)
  • A person who cultivates another person’s land as a co-sharer based on agreed conditions but does not enjoy the status of a tenant.
  1. لال کتاب (Village Note Book)
  • A book prepared for each revenue estate, comprising eleven statements showing all particulars of the estate. It is also prepared in a consolidated form for each Assessment circle, Tehsil, and District.
  1. مقریدار (Tenant with Occupancy Rights)
  • A tenant who has occupancy rights only in Attock District, Punjab (Para 211 of S.M.).
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  1. حبوب۔ سوائی (Sesses)
  • A type of tax or cesses imposed on certain items or commodities.
  1. آدھ لاپی (Half Shareholder)
  • A person who, by sinking a well in another person’s land, acquires ownership in half of the land attached to the well.
  1. ترنی / بھونگا / انگ (Cesses on Cattle)
  • Cesses or taxes levied by landowners on other residents in a village for grazing their cattle in village waste.
  1. بیگہ (Measure of Area)
  • A measure of area, where one Biga is half an acre in Western Punjab (4 Kanals).
  1. بُوٹی مار (Cultivator with Permanent Rights)
  • A tenant who has acquired permanent rights in the land by clearing “Jangal” (uncultivated land). Acquiring permanent rights is one of the conditions set by the government for claiming ownership.
  1. چیکوتا (Lump Grain Rent)
  • Rent consisting of a fixed amount of grain in the rabi season.
  1. سرسری پرتہ (Uniform Rate of Land Revenue)
  • An all-round rate of land revenue without discrimination based on soil type or land class.
  1. سیر مانی (Fee for Proprietary Title)
  • A fee of one ser in the mound of produce paid as recognition of proprietary title.

Update June (2023) 

Glossary of  New Terms in Pakistani Property Law

Abadi: Inhabited site of a village.

Abi: Watered by lift from tanks, pool, or streams.

Assigned: Land that could normally be resumed by the ruler.

Banjar Kham: Land that has remained unsown for 4 to 11 successive harvests.

Batali Rent: Rent taken by division of produce.

Banjar Jadeed: Cultivatable land which has not been cultivated for four consecutive crops.

Banjar Qadeem: Land which has not been cultivated for eight consecutive crops.

Barani: Rain-fed.

Berun Line: Outside the demarcated forest. Line is fixed by erecting pillars of stone and masonry.

Chahi: Irrigated by a well.

Charsala: The revised edition of the record of rights of a village/estate, prepared once in every 4 years to update Jamabandi, Shajra Kishtwar, and Shajra Nasab.

Deh: Village or estate.

Demarcated forests: Forest land or waste land under the control of the Forest Department of which boundaries have already been demarcated by means of pillars of stone or masonry.

Farad: A copy of land record.

Farm Land: Is almost entirely privately-owned land, except in the case of ‘Najaiz Nautor’ or illegally encroached and cultivated state land.

Ghahcharaee: The grazing of cattle, sheep, and other livestock.

Ghair Mumkin: Uncultivated land such as the bed of a nullah, road graveyard, etc.

Girdawar: Revenue official who supervises the work of three or more Patwaris in his halqa (Circle).

Girdawari: Periodical crop inspection, carried out usually twice a year by the patwari to verify the nature of crops, ownership, and if people actually have possession of land, etc.

Granted: Land that could normally not be resumed, just as a gift under Muslim Law cannot be revoked after delivery of possession.

Grazing Land: The village community’s time-honored right to graze its cattle and flocks in state-owned forests, unless any part is closed for regeneration purposes. In every village, there is common land or community land or Shamilat, which is set apart for the purpose of pasturage, graveyard, drinking of water by men or cattle. This land is called grazing land.

Hail: Land of the best kind, by virtue of its proximity to the ‘abadi’ (residential houses).

Jama Bandi: Record of Rights.

Jangal: Uncultivated land covered with trees.

Jinswar: Return of Crops.

Jareeb Kash: Hired laborer or private person provided by those land-owners who handle the Jareeb during the measurement of land in settlement operations.

Jareeb: An iron chain used to measure the land during settlement of land.

Kaap: Grassland used, because of its steep slope or rugged nature.

Kanungo: Supervisor of Patwaries.

Karam: A unit of linear measurement, equal to 5 feet and 6 inches.

Khali: Not under crop.

Khasra Girdawari: Crop inspection register.

Khata/Khatuni: The term holding is known as Khewat and the tenant’s holding as khatuni. The term is also known as Khata.

Khasara No: A portion of land of which the area is separately entered under an indicative number in the record of rights.

Khasra: List of village fields in a village.

Khalsa Land: Un-encumbered land “pure” or “free” undisputedly used in reference to crown or state-owned land.

Kharaba: A portion of cultivated land where crops have been damaged or destroyed by hailstorm, floods, drought, or any other natural disaster.

Kharif: Autumn crop, (Fasal-e-Kharif) this season exists from July to September to February.

Khud Kasht: Land under the cultivation of the owner himself.

Lambardar: Village headman who was responsible for the collection of land revenue and general assistance to the revenue administration. This has now been abolished in AJ & K.

Latha: Tracing cloth on which a map of the fields in a village is traced in black ink and the number of fields and length of sides given in red ink. This is usually prepared at the time of settlement.

Mahal: A village or estate for which a separate Record-of-Rights has been prepared.

Maira (Miani) Awwal/Waryal Awwal: Land that is clear of pebbles and sand.

Maira (Miani) Daum/Waryal Daum: May have little pebbles and sand or a mixture of both.

Malguzar: Includes a tenant-at-will holding direct under the state and paying land revenue to it without any intermediary like a landlord.

Malia: Land revenue.

Malkiat: A share or portion of an estate held by one landowner or jointly by two or more landowners.

Masavi: The name of the field map or Shajra Kishtwar prepared on a special type of thick paper, with an underlining of muslin cloth.

Mauroosi: Literally hereditary, but is generally used in reference to occupancy tenants whose rights are heritable and even saleable with the consent of the landlord.

Mauza: A village, estate, mahal, or deh.

Misal-e-Haqqiat: Construction of the record-of-rights “Misal-e-Haqqiat” assessment of land revenue.

Mutation: The process of sanctioning a change in land papers, especially Jamabandi. A new person acquires the right of land recorded instead of the former right holder.

Muzara: A tenant.

Nahri: Irrigated by a canal or water channel.

Nautor Kuninda: A person who has brought state-owned land under cultivation.

Nautor: Khalsa land brought under cultivation.

Non-Khalsa means Land: Distinguished from land which had been assigned or granted to individuals by the ruler.

Patwari: Village register and accountant.

Private forests: Either belong to individuals or the village community on account of their Shamilat rights. Owners of private forests cannot sell their trees of at least 24″ diameter standing on the ground.

Rabi: Spring crop, (Fasal-e-Rabi). This season exists from March to August.

Roznamcha: Diary.

Shajra Nasab: The genealogical tree of the landowners in a village, prepared at the time of settlement. Updated in Charsala after every four years, it is a mandatory part of the Record-of-Rights.

Shamilat: Khalsa land given after the sanctioning of mutation to the village community for both common purposes and individual possession or cultivation. There are three types of Shamilat recorded in the Record-of-Rights.

Tatima Shajra: A revised map of any field in consequence of partition, transfer, inheritance, etc.

Tenants: A person who holds land under another person, and is, or but for a special contract would be, liable to pay rent for that land to that other person, and includes the predecessors and successors-in-interest of such person but does not include:

i. A mortgagee of the rights of a landowner;

ii. A person to whom aholding has been transferred, or an estate or holding has been left in farm, under the provisions of this Act, for the recovery of an arrear of land-revenue or of a sum recoverable as such an arrear; and

iii. A person who takes from the Government a lease of unoccupied land for the purpose of subletting it.

Thanghar (Rakkar): Is relatively unproductive soil, with a considerable admixture of stones, pebbles, and sand.

Un-demarcated forests: All forest land and waste land (other than the demarcated forests) or such land under the management and control of the Revenue Department and not appropriated for any purpose.

Wajib-ul-Arz: Is a document, prepared at the time of settlement, stating various customary rights and liabilities of landowners and other members of the village community interest and vis-a-vis the state.

Update : 16 June 2023 in response to a query by a member of the public about what is “Lapara Khushki“our response is as follows:

“Lapara Khushki” is a term used in the land record department in Pakistan. It refers to a process of land measurement and demarcation that is conducted to determine the boundaries and area of a piece of land. In literal terms, “Lapara” means “without water” and “Khushki” means “dryness.”

During the “Lapara Khushki” process, the land record department measures the land without taking into account any water bodies or watercourses that may be present on the land. The purpose of this measurement is to establish the dry area of the land for record-keeping and documentation purposes.

It is important to note that the “Lapara Khushki” measurement may not reflect the actual boundaries and area of the land when water bodies or watercourses are considered. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey that includes the presence of water sources for a complete and accurate assessment of the land.

June-July (2023) Glossary has been rewritten and refreshed for context

 Glossary of Land Tenure and Agricultural Terms

Note: This glossary encompasses terms related to land ownership, revenue, agriculture, village administration, and various customs and practices prevalent in the Indian State during that time. It reflects the intricate details of land management and social structures of the Pre-Pakistan independance era.

A

Abadi deh … A site of a inhabited village.

Abi … Irrigated using lifts from tanks, pools, marshes, or streams.

Abiana … An additional assessment levied on irrigated land due to the benefits of irrigation.

Abwab …

Adhlapi … A person who gains ownership of half of the land attached to a well by sinking it in another person’s land.

Adna malik … Inferior owner.

Ahtrafi … A cess paid by artisans to the village proprietors.

Ala lambardar … Chief lambardar (Headman).

Ala malik … Superior owner.

Amin … Surveyor employed for making village maps.

Ang … Cess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in the village for grazing in village waste.

Anwanda … Clearing tenant in Dera Ghazi Khan.

Asami … Tenant (in old settlement literature, the term is sometimes confined to a resident tenant).

B

Bachh … Distribution of revenue over holdings.

Badastur …

Bahi …

Bajra … A type of millet (Pennisetum typhoides).

Bakhra … Share (in Pathan tracts).

Banda … Hamlet (in Pathan tracts).

Bangar … Upland tract.

Banjar … Uncultivated land.

Bania … Village’s shopkeeper, money-lender.

Banjar kadim … New fallow (for full explanation, see paragraph 267).

Banjar kadim … Old fallow (for full explanation, see paragraph 267).

Barani … Dependent on rainfall.

Batai … Rent taken by division of the crop.

Batta … A form of village tenure (see paragraph 139).

Bhaichara … Sub-number (paragraph 271).

Bhoang … Due paid harvest by harvest to a godkesh tenant (note on page 107).

Bhunga … Cess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in a village for grazing in village waste.

Bhur …

Bigha … A measure of area. In the Western Punjab, the bigha is half a ghumao, in the east, the shahjahani bigha is five-eighths of an acre, and the zamindari or kacha bigha is five-twenty fourths of an acre. The actual bigha used by the Zamindari does not always correspond with the kacha bigha used in settlement surveys (see paragraph 243).

Bir … A preserve.

Bisa … One-twentieth of a bigha (q. v).

Biswi … A fee paid in recognition of property rights.

Biswansi … One-twentieth of a bigha (q.v).

Burji … A survey pillar.

Butemar … A tenant who has acquired permanent rights in the land by clearing it of jangal.

C

Chaharam … A grant of one-fourth of the ruler’s share of the produce to an individual or family of influence.

Chah … Well; well-holding.

Chahi … Irrigated from a well.

Chahi khalis … Irrigated only from a well, as distinguished from chahi-nahri (q.v) or chahi-sailab.

Chahi-nahri … Irrigated partly from a well and partly from a canal.

Chak … Assessment circle, a block of land.

Chakbat … Applied to a patti or sub-division of an estate which has all its land lying in one block (see Khetbat).

Chakdar … Inferior owner (in South-West Punjab). For a full explanation, see paragraph 168.

Chakla … Assessment circle.

Chakota … Lump grain rent or rent consisting of a fixed amount of grain in the rabi, and a fixed amount of cash in the kharif harvest (see paragraph 312).

Chapparband … A term for a resident (see tenant paragraph 196) entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).

Chari … A kind of millet (q.v) grown for fodder (see jowar).

Chaudhri … Rural notable.

Chaukidar … Village watchman.

Chela … Spiritual son or pupil.

Chhambh … A marsh.

Chhar … A system of silt clearance under which the clearance is effected by the irrigators themselves (see paragraph 449).

Chundavand … A custom of inheritance under which several sons by one wife inherit the same share as a single son by another wife (see pagvand).

D

Daftri … Owner in Pathan tracts (see paragraph 157).

Dak …

Dakar … Stiff clay soil.

Darbar … Council or other governing body in a Native State.

Darkhwast Mal … Tender of engagement to pay the land revenue.

See also  Pakistan Real Estate, Landlord and Tenant Laws

Duzari …..

Darya …

Dastur-ul-amal … Hand-book for the guidance of district revenue officers in carrying out the provisions of the settlement.

Daul … Estimate of revenue payable by different estates (see paragraph 16).

Daulp …

Dharat … Weighment fee; levied on sales of produce within the village (see paragraph 94).

Dhenkli … A hand-lever well.

Dhok …

Doab … Country lying between two rivers.

Dohli … Death-bed gift of a small plot of land to a Brahman.

E

Ekfasli … Yielding one crop in each agricultural year.

F

Fakir … Religious mendicant.

Fard Ranngazi … List of fields for coloring purposes.

G

Gharldakhilkar … Tenant-at-will.

Ghair Maurasi … Tenant-at-will.

Ghairmumkin …

Ghi … Clarified butter.

Ghumao … A measure of area (see paragraph 243).

Girdawar … Kanungo or supervisor of patwaris (Paragraph 292-A).

Girdawari … Harvest inspection.

Godkesh … Tenant in Multan who has acquired a permanent title by breaking up waste (note on page 107).

Gora … Land close to a village site, which is often heavily manured.

Gosha …

Got … Sub-division of a tribe.

Guru … Spiritual father or guide.

H

Hakimi hissa … The ruler’s share of the produce.

Hakk buha … Door tax; a cess levied by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).

Hakkdar … A tenant entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).

Hamsayas … Dependents occupying outlying hamlets of a Pathan estate on condition of assisting in repelling raids on the lands of the proprietors (see paragraph 159).

Hari … Applied to land cropped only in the rabi harvest.

Hathrakhaidar … A man who agreed to become responsible for payment of the revenue on condition of receiving the proprietor’s share of the produce; has less a fee paid in recognition of the owner’s proprietary title (see paragraph 172).

I

Ikrarnama … Village administration paper, same as wajib-ul-arz.

Iliaqawar … Relating to an ilaka or tract.

Inam … A cash allowance paid to secure the services of a man of influence.

Inamdar … The holder of an inam (q.v).

Ismi … A proprietary fee.

J

Jadid … See banjar jadid. Also a class of tenant (see paragraph 196).

Jagir … An assignment of land revenue.

Jagirdar … Holder of an assignment of land revenue.

Jama … Land revenue demand.

Jamabandi … Register of holdings of owners and tenants showing land held by each and amounts payable as rent, land revenue, and cesses.

Jamai … A class of tenant (see paragraph 196).

Jangal … Uncultivated land covered with brushwood and small trees.

Jhalar … A Persian-wheel by which water is raised from a stream or canal.

Jahalari … Irrigated by jhalar (q.v).

Jhil … A sheet of water.

Jhuri … Fee paid to proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).

Jinswar … Relating to crops, also the crop statement for any particular harvest.

Jowar … A kind of millet (Sorghum Vulgare).

K

Kabza …

Kacha … Incomplete or imperfect, applied to village measures of area and weights as distinguished from those recognized by the Government; not lined with masonry (of a well).

Kacha asami … Term used for a tenant-at-will (see paragraph 197).

Kacha bigha … See bigha.

Kacha malba … The system under which the amount actually expended on the common purposes of a village is distributed periodically over the proprietors. To be distinguished from pakka malba (q.v).

Kachahri … District court-house.

Kadam … A pace (see paragraph 243).

Kadim … See banjar kadim, also a class of tenant (see paragraph 197).

Kadimi … A class of tenant (see paragraph 198).

Kaifiyat … Report note.

Kalar … Barren land, also applied to reh efflorescence, and in the east of the Punjab to sour clay rice (Land kalar dahr).

Kamlana … Cess paid by artisans to the proprietors of the village in which they ply their trade (see paragraph 94).

Kan … Appraisement of crops, realization of landlord’s share of produce in cash after appraising its amount and value.

Kanal … A measure or area (see paragraph 243).

Kania … A man who appraises crops.

Kankar … Lime modules.

Kankut … Same as kan (q.v).

Kanungo … Supervisor of patwaris.

Karam … Unit of length.

Kardar … Title of an official in an Indian State.

Karguzari … Outturn of work.

Karukan … Length and breadth.

Kasur … Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see paragraph 170).

Khadir … Low-lying land near the river.

Khaka … Rough plan.

Khalsa … The Sikh commonwealth. Revenue credited to Government as contrasted with jagir (q.v.) revenues.

Khamtahsil … Direct management of the estate by Government.

Kharaba … Portion of the crop that has failed to come to maturity.

Kharach … Cess realized by the landlord in addition to rent (see paragraph 339).

Kharif … Autumn harvest.

Khasanve … Same as vesh (q.v).

Khasra … List of fields, field register.

Khasra girdawari … Harvest inspection register.

Khata … Holding of a tenant.

Khatauni … A list of holdings of tenants. Holding slips prepared at re-measurement (see Appendix VII).

Khetbat … Applied to a patti or sub-division of an estate; all the land of which does not lie in a single block (see chakbat).

Khewat … A list of owners’ holdings.

Khewat-khatauni … A combined khewat and khatauni corresponding to the present jamabandi (see Paragraph 274).

Khudkasht … Cultivated by the owner himself.

Khula vesh … Fresh calculation of shares at the time of vesh (q.v.) (See paragraph 158).

Khush-haisiyati … Owner’s rate, water, or canal-advantage rate.

Killabandi … (See Appendix XIV).

Kudhi-Lamini … A cess on hearths realized by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).

Kuhmar … A tenant in Dera Gazi Khan who has earned a permanent title by sinking a well (see paragraph 211).

L

Lakh … 1,00,000.

Lakhiraj … Exempt from assessment.

Lambardar … Village headman.

Latha girdawari … Cloth copy of the patwari’s map (Paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).

Lathband … A tenant who acquires rights in land by embanking fields (see Paragraph 211).

Lathmar … Same as lathband (q.v).

Lichh … Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see Paragraph 169).

Lungi … Fee paid to the proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).

M

Mafi … Revenue free.

Mafidar … The holder of an assignment of land revenue.

Mahal …

Mahsul… Share of produce due to state, now share of produce taken by the person who pays the revenue in money (see paragraph 170).

Mahsulkhor … A kind of land revenue farmer (see paragraph 172).

Maira … Sandy loam.

Mal … Land Revenue.

Malatar … Same as hamsaya (q.v).

Malba … Fund out of which common village expenses are defrayed.

Malguzar … Person responsible for the payment of land revenue.

Malguzari … Relating to assessment assessable.

Malik … Owner in the Western Punjab; malik means a leading man in a section of a tribe.

Malik adna … Inferior proprietor.

Malik ala … Superior proprietor.

Malikana … Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title.

Malik Kabza … A man who owns the land actually in his possession but has no share in the common property of the village community (see paragraph 142).

Marla … A measure of area (see paragraph 243).

Masri … A small pulse.

Matyat … A word used in United Provinces for a clay soil. Occupancy tenant.

Mauza …

Mauzawar … By villages (paragraph 512).

Milan khasra … An area statement abstracted from the khasra (q.v) annual area statement.

Milan rakba … Annual area statement.

Milkiyat adna … Inferior ownership.

Milkiyat ala … Superior ownership.

Milkiyat makbuz … Tenure of a malik kabza (q.v).

Min …

Minhai … Excluded from the assessable area.

Minjumla … Part out of a whole (Instruction 3, Appendix VIII).

Mirasi … A class of Landholder (See paragraph 196).

Mirasidar … A class of landholder (see Paragraph 196).

Misl haqiyat … Record-of-rights.

Moth … A small pulse (phareoolus trilobus).

Muhtarafa … Same as ahtrafi (q.v).

Mukaddim … Superior proprietor (see paragraph 167), also a leading man or headman in a village community (see paragraph 115).

Makaddmi … Fee paid to the superior proprietor in recognition of proprietary title.

Mukarraridar … A kind of occupancy tenant.

Mundhimar … A man who acquires occupancy rights in land by clearing it of jangal.

Munshi … An Indian clerk.

Muntakhib assamiwar … Statement of owners and tenants, holding with details of fields and rent, etc.

Musavi … Mapping sheet.

Mushakhsadar … A farmer of the land revenue (See paragraph 172).

N

Nagha … Commutation paid for failure to perform ehher (q.v) labor.

Nahri … Irrigated from a canal.

Nahri-parts … Assessment rate over and above the assessment rate for unirrigated land applied to nahri land in calculating the fixed assessment which it shall pay (see paragraph 446).

Naib-tehsildar … The deputy or assistant of the Tehsildar (q.v.).

Naksha alamat … List of conventional signs.

Naksha-intikal … Statement of land transfers.

Naksha-lakhiraj … Statement of land revenue assignments.

Naksha-thakbast … Village boundary map (see paragraphs 248 and 270).

Nala … Drain or watercourse.

Nautor … Land brought under cultivation for the first time.

Nazim … Governor of a large tract in an Indian State.

Nazrana … An abatement from the revenue to an estate, etc., retained by the government in making a land revenue assignment to an individual.

Nazul … Land, etc. which has become the property of the government by escheat or failure of heirs.

Niai …

P

Pachotra … A surcharge of 5 per cent on the revenue paid to village headmen.

Pag … Fee paid to the proprietor on entering on possession of land and (see paragraph 168).

Pagvand … A custom of inheritance under which sons by different wives inherit equal shares in land (see chundavand), the property being divided per capita.

Pahikasht … A tenant who does not live in the village in which he cultivates land.

Paipath … A fee paid to a superior owner in recognition of his proprietary title (see paragraph 169).

Pakka … Complete or perfect, applied to measures of weight and area recognized by the government as distinguished from those used in villages; lined with masonry (of a well).

Pakka malba … The system under which the amount to be collected for common village expenses is fixed at a definite percentage of the land revenue.

Pana … A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).

Panahi … A tenant protected from ejectment for a term of years (See paragraph 203).

Panapalat … A form of periodical distribution of land in the Gurgaon District (see paragraph 158).

Parcha … An extract from a khatauni or Jamabandi, a copy of the entry in a khatauni regarding his holding given to a right-holder at measurement (see paragraph 2, Appendix VII).

Pargana … A group of estates forming a sub-division of a district or Tehsil.

Part Sirkar … Government copy of the new settlement record.

Part Tehsil … Tehsil copy of the settlement map (paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).

Parta … Assessment rate.

Patta … Leather cover such as is used for protecting account books by Indian shopkeepers (see Appendix VII) also deed of grant (see paragraph 152).

Patti … A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128); also a well-holding (see paragraph 165).

Pattidar … A form of village tenure (see paragraphs 137 and 138).

Patwari … A village accountant or registrar.

Puchh-bakri … A cess on marriage levied by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).

R

Rabi … Spring harvest.

Raiyat …

Raiyatwari … A form of settlement in which the occupant of each holding is under a separate engagement with the government, as distinguished from the village settlement in force in the North-Western area.

Rakh … A preserve.

Rangsaz … A colorist.

Rassa-Buti … A form of tenure in riverain estates in Sialkot (see note on page 72).

Rastah …

Rausli … A loam soil.

Riwaj-I-am … Record of customs followed by the chief tribes in a district in the matter of marriage, inheritance, etc. (see paragraphs 561—567).

Ret …

Rohi … A stiffish soil containing a considerable amount of clay.

Rubakati-akhir … Brief abstract of settlement proceedings appended to the settlement record (see paragraph 270).

S

Sabik …

Sadr … Headquarters station.

Sad malguzars … Leading land-owners allowed to become responsible for the revenue assessed on an estate.

Sailab … Flooded or kept permanently moist by a river.

Sailaba … Same as sailab (q.v.).

Sair … Miscellaneous income derived from an estate by its owners over and above the profits of cultivation Sanad … A deed of grant.

Sarak …

Sarsahi … A measure of area (See paragraph 243).

Sarsari parts … An all-round rate on cultivation without discrimination of soils or classes of land.

Sawani … Cropped only in the autumn harvest.

Sayar … See sair.

Ser … A measure of weight, 1/40th of a maund.

Seri … Grant of land made by a Pathan Chief to men who helped him with their swords or their prayers.

Sermani … A fee of one ser in the maund of produce paid in recognition of proprietary title.

Shahjahani bigha … See bigha.

Shahnahri … Irrigated from a canal owned by the State.

Shajra … Map, plan.

Shajra kishtwar … Village common land.

Shikast …

Shora …

Sihadda … Masonry pillar or platform erected at the point where the boundaries of three villages meet.

Silhdar … Same as chakdar (q.v.).

Sir jagir … Land owned by a jagirdar in an estate of which the revenue is assigned to him.

Sir-o-pa … Fee paid to the proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).

Siwai … Cesses, also same as sair (q.v.).

T

Tafrik … Distribution of revenue over holdings.

Tahrij asamiwar … Abstract of khatauni showing tenants, holdings with their areas and rents, etc.; but without details of fields (see paragraph 270).

Tehsil … A sub-division of a district, in charge of a Tehsildar.

Tehsildar … Official in chief executive charge of a Tehsil.

Takavi … Loan granted by the government to a land-owner for agricultural purposes.

Talukdar … A superior proprietor (see paragraphs 103, 143, and 145).

Taraddadkar … A class of tenant in Jhang (see paragraph 211).

Taraf … A sub-division of an estate.

Tarika paimaish … Note of the method of survey (Appendix XXI).

Tarmim …

Tawani … A class of tenant in Kohat.

Thana … Police Station or the jurisdiction of a police station.

Tahana patti … Marriage fee levied by the proprietors of a village from other residents.

Thok … A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).

Thula … A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).

V

Vesh … Periodical redistribution of land among proprietors (see paragraph 158).

W

Wajib-ul-arz … Village administration paper (see paragraphs 295-296-A and Appendix VIII).

Waris … Landholder (see paragraphs 152, 175, 178, and 197-A).

Warisi … Right of the waris (q.v.).

Water …

Wirsana … Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title.

Z

Zabti … Cash rents levied on account of certain crops.

Zail … A group of estates out of which some representative man is appointed Zaildar.

Zaildar … A man of influence appointed to have charge of a Zail.

Zamindar … Land-owner.

Zamindari … A form of village tenure (see paragraph 136).

Zamindari bigha … See bigha.

Zari-I-Zagha … Fund formed out of commutation paid by persons who do not perform the chher (q.v.) labor for which they are responsible.

Zillah (zil’s) … District.

By The Josh and Mak Team

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