For detailed guidance on Clauses of the FIDIC Conditions of Contract (Red Book) or any other aspects of construction law, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is equipped to provide you with the legal support necessary to navigate the complexities of construction contracts, ensuring your interests are protected and projects are managed efficiently.

At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to delivering legal services that not only meet but exceed the requirements of our clients by ensuring comprehensive contract management and risk mitigation strategies are in place.

The following commentary /client information article aims to provide a detailed legal analysis of the significant provisions related to particular conditions of contracts and updates found in the Second Edition of the FIDIC Red Book (2017 version), which governs the Conditions of Contract for Construction, specifically designed by the Employer. This revised editions represents an evolution in the FIDIC framework, intending to enhance clarity, fairness, and the procedural aspects of contract administration in construction and engineering projects.The article looks at particular conditions of contract specifically and comments on how these are to be drafted as per our experience dealing with such contracts.

The revised edition (the original one having come out in 1999)   provides greater detail and clarity concerning the requirements for notices and other communications. This is a critical area as effective communication is essential for the smooth execution of construction contracts. It ensures that both parties are fully aware of their obligations and any changes in scope or execution. Proper notice requirements are pivotal in avoiding disputes and ensuring contractual compliance, making this clarification a welcome improvement for both Employers and Contractors.

Secondly, the provisions addressing claims of both Employers and Contractors have been structured to ensure equitable treatment. By segregating claims from disputes, the updated Red Book aims to streamline the process of claim handling, thus potentially reducing the likelihood of these claims escalating into disputes. This approach not only promotes fairness but also efficiency, by allowing parties to focus on resolution rather than conflict.

Thirdly, the introduction of mechanisms in the newer editions for dispute avoidance marks a significant step towards proactive management of potential conflicts. By focusing on avoidance, the Red Book aligns with contemporary trends in contract management that prefer resolving issues before they mature into full-blown disputes. Such mechanisms are likely to include early warning procedures, joint fact-finding, and possibly third-party mediation. These processes are designed to save time and costs, preserving business relationships and maintaining project momentum.

Fourthly, the detailed provisions for quality management and verification of the Contractor’s contractual compliance are crucial for ensuring that the construction work meets the agreed standards and specifications. These provisions likely involve regular audits, compliance checks, and benchmarking against industry standards, which help in maintaining the quality and integrity of the construction project.

Furthermore, it is important to note that the General Conditions, along with the Particular Conditions (Part A – Contract Data and Part B – Special Provisions), form the complete Conditions of Contract. This structure allows for customization of the contract to address the specific needs and circumstances of each project, particularly in cases involving governmental agencies. These entities may require special conditions or particular procedures that deviate from the General Conditions to accommodate regulatory requirements or policy objectives.

The recognition that many Employers, especially governmental bodies, may need special conditions or modifications to the procedures prescribed in the General Conditions, is reflective of FIDIC’s understanding of the diverse regulatory and operational environments in which these contracts operate. Including these in Part B – Special Provisions, ensures that the contracts are adaptable and responsive to specific project requirements, which is essential for the successful delivery of construction projects.

In conclusion, the updated version of the FIDIC Red Book from 2017 provides comprehensive updates that enhance the clarity, fairness, and effectiveness of the contracting process in construction and engineering projects. These changes are designed to improve communication, streamline claims handling, promote dispute avoidance, and ensure high standards of quality management. As such, these Conditions of Contract should be carefully considered and understood by legal professionals advising clients in the construction industry.

The need for particular conditions of contract

The FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction, designed by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC), are crafted to facilitate the construction of building or engineering works, particularly where tenders are solicited internationally. This commentary provides a focused legal analysis aimed at offering insights into how these conditions may be adapted and effectively utilised, especially concerning the drafting of Special Provisions and modifications necessary to meet local legal requirements.The suggestions are drawn from experience and the suggested changes in the section of the contract on Particular Conditions of Contract of the Red Book.

Primarily, the FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction are recommended for projects where the Employer has designed the works, and the Contractor is responsible for constructing the works according to this design. However, the Conditions also accommodate situations where the Contractor might be required to design minor elements of the Permanent Works. It is critical to recognise that these conditions are not suitable for projects requiring significant design input from the Contractor. For projects where the Contractor is tasked with substantial design responsibilities, alternative FIDIC contracts such as the Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build or the Conditions of Contract for EPC/Turnkey Projects should be considered. This differentiation is vital to ensure that the contract type aligns appropriately with the project’s scope and the distribution of responsibilities.

Moreover, modifications to the General Conditions  to form the particular conditions may be necessary to align with local legal frameworks, particularly for contracts intended to be executed domestically rather than internationally. Such modifications are essential to ensure compliance with local regulations and to mitigate the risks of legal disputes that may arise from non-compliance. These adaptations should be carefully drafted to maintain consistency with the overarching principles of the FIDIC Conditions while adequately addressing specific local requirements.

For the drafting of Special Provisions (Particular Conditions – Part B),in the FIDIC Red Book provides guidance that includes various options for sub-clauses to be adapted or expanded upon as necessary. This guidance offers both example wording and aide-memoires to assist in the creation of comprehensive and precise contractual documents. The inclusion of example wording serves as a practical tool, enabling drafters to visualise how certain clauses may be framed while ensuring that the Special Provisions remain coherent with the General Conditions and the contract’s overall intent.

Legal professionals advising on these matters should underscore the importance of seeking specialised legal counsel when amending or drafting Special Provisions. This ensures that all modifications or additions are legally sound, reflect the project’s specific needs, and maintain the contractual balance intended by FIDIC. Additionally, it is crucial to remind stakeholders that while FIDIC contracts are designed to be broadly applicable, the specific circumstances of each project may necessitate individual adjustments, which must be carefully managed to preserve the functional and legal integrity of the contract.Josh and Mak International is able to help our clients in the Construction sector achieve this objective.

The FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction provide a robust foundation for international construction projects but require careful adaptation to meet local laws and the specific needs of more complex projects involving significant contractor-designed elements. As Legal professionals at Josh and Mak International we routinely guide our clients through these adaptations with a clear understanding of both the standard FIDIC provisions and the requirements for effective modifications.

At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to providing our clients with robust legal advice on the nuances of FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction. This client information article is designed to illuminate the importance of adhering to the FIDIC Golden Principles while drafting the Special Provisions of these contracts. This guidance is particularly pertinent when the contracts are tailored for projects where the Employer is responsible for the design of the building or engineering works.

Understanding the FIDIC Golden Principles

FIDIC, the International Federation of Consulting Engineers, underscores the importance of these principles in ensuring that contracts maintain their integrity and effectiveness throughout the execution of the project. The FIDIC Golden Principles (GPs) serve as a cornerstone for drafting and negotiating contracts under its framework. Here’s a brief overview of these principles:

  1. GP1: Clear Definitions of Roles and Responsibilities
    The contract must clearly define the duties, rights, obligations, roles, and responsibilities of all participants, consistent with those outlined in the General Conditions, tailored appropriately to suit the specific project requirements.
  2. GP2: Clarity and Ambiguity in Drafting
    Particular Conditions should be drafted with utmost clarity and precision to avoid ambiguity, ensuring that all parties have a clear understanding of their commitments and expectations.
  3. GP3: Equitable Risk Allocation
    The modifications made in the Particular Conditions must not disrupt the balanced allocation of risk and reward established in the General Conditions. This ensures that the fairness intrinsic to the FIDIC contracts is maintained.
  4. GP4: Reasonable Time Periods
    All stipulated timeframes for the parties to perform their contractual obligations should be reasonable, providing sufficient time to fulfill these duties without undue pressure, thus supporting the smooth progression of project milestones.
  5. GP5: Mandatory Dispute Avoidance
    To manage conflicts effectively, all formal disputes should initially be referred to a Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Board. This step is mandatory before any move towards arbitration can be made, emphasizing the importance of resolving issues through provisional decisions to avoid lengthy disputes.

The Significance of These Principles

The FIDIC Golden Principles are essential not only for maintaining the structural integrity of the contract but also for ensuring that it remains recognisable as a FIDIC contract, adhering to international standards. These principles guide the modification of General Conditions to accommodate specific project features and legal requirements without compromising the contract’s fair and balanced nature.

For employers and contractors involved in international construction projects, understanding and applying these principles is crucial. They ensure that the contract remains robust and reflective of the project’s needs while protecting all parties’ interests under a fair and balanced framework.

At Josh and Mak International, we assist our clients in navigating these complex provisions. By ensuring that Special Provisions adhere to these principles, we help safeguard the interests of all parties and maintain the integrity of the contractual relationship.

When dealing with FIDIC contracts, particularly in drafting Particular Conditions, it is vital to consult with experienced legal professionals who can provide guidance tailored to the specific demands of your project and the overarching legal environment. Our team at Josh and Mak International is equipped to provide this expertise, ensuring that your contractual agreements are both compliant and strategically sound.

For more information on how we can assist with your FIDIC contract needs, please contact our legal team at We are here to help you navigate the complexities of construction contracts with confidence and legal acumen.

At Josh and Mak International, we are dedicated to providing comprehensive legal advice to our clients engaged in construction projects under the FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction, specifically those that are designed by the Employer. This client information article offers crucial insights into the careful integration of new or altered sub-clauses into these contracts, ensuring they are tailored effectively to meet the particular needs of your project.

Importance of Precise Wording in Contract Amendments

When drafting amendments or additions to the General Conditions of a FIDIC contract, it is imperative to meticulously check the wording to ensure that it does not unintentionally alter the original meaning of other clauses, shift the balance of obligations or risks, or introduce any ambiguities. The precision of language in these modifications cannot be overstated, as even minor changes can have significant legal implications, affecting the duties and responsibilities of the parties involved.

Guidance on Time Period Adjustments

Each time period outlined in the General Conditions is considered by FIDIC to be reasonable, realistic, and achievable, reflecting a balance between the interests of both parties involved in the contract. If adjustments to these time periods are contemplated within the Special Provisions (Particular Conditions – Part B), they must remain justifiable within the specific context of the project. Alterations should only be made after careful consideration of their potential impact on project timelines and the contractual balance.

Handling Data in Contract Documents

It is important to note that while the General Conditions may require specific data to be provided by the Employer or the Contractor in the Contract Data (Particular Conditions – Part A), there are no requirements for such data in the Special Provisions (Particular Conditions – Part B). Any changes made in the Special Provisions should clearly indicate amendments or supplements to the General Conditions, maintaining clarity and transparency in the contractual documentation.

Describing the Conditions of Contract in Tender Documents

When preparing tender documents, the following description should be used to outline the structure of the contract: “The Conditions of Contract comprise the ‘General Conditions’, which form part of the ‘Conditions of Contract for Construction’ Second Edition 2017 published by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC), the Contract Data (Particular Conditions – Part A) and the following ‘Special Provisions’ (Particular Conditions – Part B), which include amendments and additions to such General Conditions.”

It is crucial that any modifications in the Special Provisions align with the clause numbers and titles from the General Conditions to ensure easy identification. Additionally, the tender documents should explicitly state that the provisions in the Special Provisions take precedence over those in the General Conditions, and similarly, the provisions in the Contract Data take precedence over those in the Special Provisions.

Navigating the complexities of FIDIC contracts requires a deep understanding of their structure and the careful drafting of any modifications. At Josh and Mak International, we assist our clients in ensuring that all contractual amendments are crafted with legal precision, tailored to the specific circumstances of their projects, and compliant with applicable laws. For expert legal assistance in managing your construction contracts, please reach out to our team at We are here to provide the guidance you need to protect your interests and ensure the success of your projects.

Preparation of Tender Documents in the FIDIC Red Book

At Josh and Mak International, we recognize the importance of thorough preparation and strategic planning in the tendering process for construction projects governed by FIDIC contracts. This section client information article is designed to guide Employers through the critical steps of preparing tender documents and planning the tender process in accordance with the FIDIC Red Book – Conditions of Contract for Construction. Employers should leverage the FIDIC Procurement Procedures Guide 1st Edition 2011, which outlines best practice procedures and provides invaluable advice on drafting tender documents and managing the tender process efficiently.

Overview of Tender Document Components

Employers should ensure that the tender documents are comprehensive and clearly structured to facilitate the submission of responsive, clear, and competitive tenders. Typically, tender documents will include:

  1. Letter of Invitation to Tender: This initiates the tender process by formally inviting potential contractors to submit bids.
  2. Instructions to Tenderers: This document provides detailed guidelines on how tenders should be prepared and submitted. It includes any special requirements that Employers wish tenderers to consider, which do not form part of the Specification and/or Drawings.
  3. Form of Letter of Tender and Required Appendices: These documents specify the format in which tenders should be submitted.
  4. Conditions of Contract: Both General and Particular Conditions need to be included to define the contractual terms.
  5. General and Technical Information: This covers the technical aspects and general information about the project, including Site Data and Reference Items as stipulated in the FIDIC Conditions.
  6. The Specification and Drawings: These provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of the project.
  7. Schedules: Including the Bill of Quantities, which is crucial for valuing the works, and potentially a Daywork Schedule for minor works.

Special Considerations in Preparing Tender Documents

It is essential that the tender documents are prepared by suitably qualified engineers, familiar with the technical and contractual requirements of the project. A legal review by qualified lawyers is also advisable to ensure that the contractual provisions are compliant with applicable laws and that the tender documents are legally sound.

Key Sub-Clauses and Contract Data

Many Sub-Clauses in the General Conditions refer to specific data that needs to be included in the Contract Data (Particular Conditions – Part A), which must be provided by the Employer. If additional information is required from tenderers, this should be clearly stated in the tender documents. Employers may find it beneficial to include a questionnaire to gather necessary data from the tenderers.

Instructions to Tenderers

The Instructions to Tenderers should detail any constraints on completing the Contract Data and Schedules and specify other information required from each tenderer. If security and guarantees are necessary, these requirements should also be included in the instructions, with example forms provided where applicable.

Final Considerations

Employers must also consider the overall timeline for the tender process, allowing sufficient time for tenderers to prepare and submit their tenders and for the review and evaluation of these tenders. This ensures a competitive tendering process and facilitates the selection of the most suitable contractor for the project.

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At Josh and Mak International, we provide expert legal guidance to ensure that your tender documents and process align with FIDIC standards and best practices, protecting your interests and facilitating the successful procurement and execution of your construction projects. For detailed assistance and legal advice tailored to your specific needs, please contact our team at

At Josh and Mak International, we understand the complexities involved in drafting Special Provisions for FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction. Our aim with this client information article is to guide Employers through the essential considerations and best practices in tailoring these provisions to meet the specific needs of their projects while ensuring compliance with local legal standards.

Importance of Professional Review for Special Provisions 

It is critical that Employers and drafters of the Special Provisions consult with professional legal advisers to review the terminology used in the General Conditions. This ensures that the language is consistent with accepted legal practices within the jurisdiction where the project is being executed. For instance, certain terms like “gross negligence” may lack a clear definition in some legal systems, notably within common law jurisdictions, and are therefore often avoided in legal documents. Similarly, the term “indemnity” under English law carries specific implications that may allow the indemnified party to recover certain types of losses which are not typically recoverable under general legal principles.

Sub-Clauses Requiring Attention

Special attention should be given to amending any Sub-Clauses in the General Conditions that may not align with the specific needs of the project or the requirements set forth by the Employer. Examples of such clauses include, but are not limited to:

  • Sub-Clause 1.15 [Limitation of Liability]: This clause typically limits recovery to direct damages. If the contractual intention is to allow for recovery of indirect or consequential damages under certain circumstances, this clause may need to be carefully reworded.
  • Clauses involving indemnities and liabilities: These need to be closely scrutinized to ensure they are consistent with the legal interpretations and expectations within the project’s jurisdiction.

Drafting Special Provisions

When drafting Special Provisions, it is the responsibility of the drafter to select appropriate Sub-Clauses and wording that align with the project’s specific requirements. This includes not only modifying existing clauses but also potentially adding new provisions to cover unique aspects of the project. Drafters should use the provided example wording and references as guides, but must tailor each clause to suit the particular circumstances of the project.

Avoiding Unintended Consequences

Great care must be taken to ensure that amendments to the wording of Sub-Clauses or the addition of new provisions do not unintentionally alter the balance of obligations and rights between the Parties. It is essential to maintain the integrity and balance of the contract to avoid potential disputes or legal challenges.

Contacting Our Team

For Employers seeking expert legal advice on drafting and reviewing Special Provisions in FIDIC contracts, our experienced team at Josh and Mak International is ready to assist. Please contact us at for tailored support and guidance. Our goal is to ensure that your contract not only meets the legal standards of your jurisdiction but also aligns perfectly with the specific needs and objectives of your project.

At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to providing our clients with detailed, bespoke legal services that cater to the intricacies of international construction law and contractual obligations under the FIDIC framework.

A review of the Clauses of the Red Book for Special Provisions

At Josh and Mak International, we provide expert legal advice to assist our clients in navigating the complexities of the FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction, particularly in relation to drafting and understanding the pivotal Clause 1 – General Provisions. This article details key aspects and practical advice on managing these provisions effectively, ensuring legal compliance and safeguarding your interests throughout the contractual process.

Clause 1 General Provisions – Sub-Clause 1.1 Definitions

In FIDIC contracts, the definitions section under Sub-Clause 1.1 is crucial as it sets the terms that govern the entire contract. Definitions must be used consistently across all contract documents, including the Specification by the Employer and the Tender documents by the Contractor. Special attention should be given when drafting these sections to align with the defined terms to prevent any potential misinterpretations.

Key Considerations in Definitions:

  • Base Date (1.1.4): If significant data is provided close to the tender submission date, consider extending this date to ensure all information is included before the Base Date, influencing conditions such as Site Data and Unforeseeable Physical Conditions.
  • Site (1.1.74): Clearly specify any locations apart from the main site where equipment or materials might be stored or used, as this affects insurances and security provisions.
  • Potential Amendments: In specific cases, it might be necessary to tailor definitions to suit project needs or local legal requirements, such as defining ‘Base Date’ as a specific calendar date, or adjusting the ‘Local Currency’ to reflect the currencies of multiple countries if the site spans borders.

Special Provisions and the Importance of Definitions

When drafting Special Provisions, it’s essential to ensure that any new or adjusted terms are carefully defined and placed correctly within the contract structure to avoid disrupting the original numbering of the General Conditions. This careful structuring helps maintain clarity and legal integrity.

Sub-Clause Examples and Guidance:

  • Notices and Communications (1.3): If relying on paper notices, consider extending time scales to accommodate postal delays.
  • Priority of Documents (1.5): Establish a clear order of precedence among contract documents to resolve any ambiguities or discrepancies. This may involve modifying or removing certain sub-clauses to better suit project specifics.
  • Contract Agreement (1.6): Include the contract form in tender documents, and consider recording key details like the Accepted Contract Amount and Commencement Date to ensure all parties are clear on the terms from the start.

Compliance and Environmental Considerations:

  • Compliance with Laws (1.13): Specify any necessary environmental permits and related obligations within the Specification to ensure the Contractor is fully aware of and can comply with all legal requirements.

Joint Ventures and Liability:

  • Joint and Several Liability (1.14): If dealing with joint ventures, specify requirements clearly in the tender documents. It’s often advisable to identify a lead partner early to streamline communications and avoid internal disputes.

Contacting Josh and Mak International

For further detailed guidance on managing the definitions and provisions within FIDIC contracts, or any other legal queries related to construction law, please contact us at Our team is equipped to provide you with the expert advice needed to navigate the complexities of international construction contracts confidently.

At Josh and Mak International, we are dedicated to ensuring that your contracts are not only compliant with applicable laws but also structured to protect your interests throughout the lifecycle of your construction project.

Dealing with Limitation of Liability 

At Josh and Mak International, we provide comprehensive legal guidance on managing the limitations of liability under the FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction, particularly focusing on Sub-Clause 1.15. This section of the article aims to assist our clients in understanding and effectively navigating the complexities of this clause to safeguard their interests in construction projects.

Overview of Sub-Clause 1.15 Limitation of Liability

Sub-Clause 1.15 of the FIDIC Conditions of Contract addresses the limitations on each party’s liability towards the other. This provision is critical as it defines the financial exposure and potential risks each party undertakes in the event of contractual breaches, including damages due to delay, defects, or other liabilities that may arise during the execution of the contract.

Key Components of Liability Limitations

The FIDIC framework allows for specific adjustments to be made to cater to the unique aspects of each project, particularly concerning indirect or consequential losses and insurance-related liabilities. Here’s a breakdown of how liabilities are typically structured:

  1. Direct Liabilities:
    • Delay Damages: The Contractor’s liability for failing to meet the Time for Completion is capped at the amount specified in the Contract Data.
    • Defects and Damages: Liabilities for defects attributable to the Contractor or damages caused to the Works or the Employer’s property are limited to specified sums in the Contract Data or a percentage thereof.
  2. Indirect or Consequential Losses:
    • The standard contract terms stipulate that neither party is liable for indirect losses such as loss of profit, loss of use of the Works, or loss of any contract unless explicitly stated otherwise in the contract.
  3. Insurance-related Liabilities:
    • Specific caps are related to the value of the insurance cover required under various sub-clauses of Clause 19, which deals with insurance provisions, ensuring that liabilities are covered to an extent by insurance policies.
  4. No Limit for Certain Indemnities:
    • For certain indemnities, particularly those relating to third-party claims under specific conditions, there is no limitation on the liability, underscoring the need for comprehensive insurance coverage.

Drafting and Amending Limitations of Liability

When drafting or amending the Contract Data related to liabilities, it is crucial to:

  • Precisely define the sums for various liabilities.
  • Clearly state any deviations from standard liability limitations, especially if including indirect or consequential losses which are generally excluded.
  • Ensure that all amendments are coherent with insurance provisions and overall contractual obligations.

Legal Implications and Best Practices

It is advisable to engage with legal professionals when setting the terms for liabilities in a FIDIC contract to ensure that they are tailored to the project’s specifics and compliant with local laws. Adjustments should be made carefully to avoid creating imbalances in risk allocation or exposing either party to undue financial risk.

Contacting Josh and Mak International

For detailed advice on structuring liabilities in your FIDIC contracts or any other inquiries related to construction law, please contact us at Our experienced team is ready to provide you with tailored legal solutions that protect your interests and facilitate the successful execution of your construction projects.

At Josh and Mak International, we are dedicated to ensuring that our clients not only understand the intricacies of FIDIC contracts but are also equipped to negotiate terms that best serve their project needs and legal requirements.

Specific conditions on the Employer 

At Josh and Mak International, we provide specialized legal advice on navigating the FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Construction, specifically designed by the Employer. This section of the article focuses on essential considerations regarding the Employer’s responsibilities and the Contractor’s rights, particularly concerning access to the site and the use of Employer-supplied materials and equipment as outlined in Sub-Clauses 2.1, 2.3, and 2.6.

Sub-Clause 2.1: Right of Access to the Site

The right of access to the site is fundamental for the Contractor to commence and continue the execution of the works. If early access is required for purposes such as surveys or sub-surface investigations, it should be explicitly stated in the Specification. This includes detailing any restrictions on access and whether it will be exclusive to the Contractor. If there are any unusual conditions affecting the right of access or possession of the site, these must also be clearly specified in the Specification, with necessary amendments made to ensure clarity in the contract documents.

Sub-Clause 2.3: Employer’s Personnel and Other Contractors

Cooperation between the Contractor and other contractors on or near the site is crucial for the smooth execution of the project. The Employer’s contracts with other contractors should reflect provisions that facilitate such cooperation, ensuring that all parties can work concurrently without disruptions, adhering to the project’s timeline and quality standards.

Sub-Clause 2.6: Employer-Supplied Materials and Employer’s Equipment

When the Employer supplies materials or equipment for use in the execution of the works, several provisions should be considered:

  1. Timing of Supply: The Employer must provide the materials or equipment at the times specified in the Specification. If no time is specified, delivery should align with the Contractor’s need to maintain progress according to the project’s schedule.
  2. Inspection and Notification: Upon receipt, the Contractor is responsible for conducting a visual inspection of the materials or equipment and must promptly notify the Engineer of any defects, shortages, or other issues. This responsibility is critical to ensuring that any issues are addressed without delaying the project’s progress.
  3. Care and Custody: After inspection, the responsibility for the care, custody, and control of the materials or equipment transfers to the Contractor. However, this does not relieve the Employer of liability for issues not apparent from visual inspection. Specific instructions for rectifying any identified problems should be documented and deemed to be issued under Sub-Clause 13.3.1 [Variation by Instruction].
  4. Usage and Removal: The Employer’s Equipment, unless otherwise specified, should be available for the exclusive use of the Contractor. The Contractor must not remove any equipment from the site without the Employer’s consent, except as necessary for transporting goods or personnel to and from the site.

Legal Implications and Best Practices

It is crucial for Employers to ensure that the contract clearly defines terms and conditions related to site access, and the provision and use of materials and equipment. Clear contractual terms help prevent disputes related to project delays, defects, or additional costs.

Contacting Josh and Mak International

For further guidance on managing contractual obligations and rights under the FIDIC Conditions of Contract or any other construction-related legal matters, please contact us at Our team is equipped to provide you with expert legal support tailored to the complexities of construction law, ensuring your interests are protected and your projects proceed smoothly.

At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to delivering legal services that align with the highest standards of clarity, efficiency, and client satisfaction, helping you navigate the challenges of construction contracts with confidence and strategic insight.

Specific Conditions Related to the roles and responsibilities of the Engineer 

This section of the client information article delves into the roles and responsibilities of the Engineer as defined in Clause 3 of the FIDIC contract, providing guidance on ensuring these provisions align with your project’s requirements and legal framework.

Sub-Clause 3.1: The Engineer

The Engineer plays a pivotal role in the construction process, acting as the Employer’s representative. It is advisable that the Engineer involved in the design phase continues through to the construction phase to maintain consistency and understanding of the project. Employers are recommended to use the FIDIC Client/Consultant Model Services Agreement (White Book) for appointing the Engineer, which provides standardized contractual guidance and helps in establishing clear terms of engagement.

Sub-Clause 3.2: Engineer’s Duties and Authority

The Engineer must perform their duties under the contract with integrity and fairness. They should adhere to FIDIC’s Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Integrity Management to prevent any corruption or bribery. The contract may require that the Engineer obtains the Employer’s consent before taking certain actions, which should be specified in the Special Provisions to ensure transparency and control over critical decisions. It’s important that these requirements do not apply to actions under Sub-Clause 3.7 [Agreement or Determination], where the Engineer is expected to act neutrally.

Sub-Clause 3.4: Delegation by the Engineer

The Engineer may delegate tasks to assistants, who could range from design engineers to specialist inspectors. It’s crucial that all assistants are proficient in the language of the contract as stated in Sub-Clause 1.4 [Law and Language]. If language proficiency is an issue, the Engineer should provide competent interpreters to avoid any miscommunications that could affect the project’s execution.

Engineer’s Instructions (Sub-Clause 3.5)

Adjustments may be necessary if local laws conflict with the Engineer’s instructions, especially regarding health and safety regulations. If oral instructions are permitted, it is vital to have a system to confirm these instructions in writing within a specified timeframe to ensure they are enforceable and acknowledged by both parties.

Sub-Clause 3.7: Agreement or Determination

The Engineer is required to act impartially and not delegate these specific duties. This impartiality ensures that the Engineer can mediate fairly between the Employer and Contractor, maintaining a balanced perspective that does not favor the Employer despite their employment relationship.

Sub-Clause 3.8: Meetings

Regular meetings are essential for the smooth progression of the project. The Specification should include a schedule of various meetings such as management, site, technical, and progress meetings, which will facilitate effective communication and timely resolution of issues.

Legal Advice and Support

For projects utilizing the FIDIC Conditions of Contract, it is crucial to have precise, legally sound contracts and documentation. Josh and Mak International can assist in drafting, reviewing, and negotiating these documents to align with both FIDIC standards and local legal requirements.

For expert legal assistance, please contact us at Our team is ready to provide the support you need to navigate the complexities of construction contracts effectively, ensuring your interests are protected throughout the project lifecycle.

At Josh and Mak International, we pride ourselves on our detailed understanding of construction law and our ability to adapt our services to meet the unique demands of each client and project under the FIDIC framework.

The Contractor (Specific /Particular Conditions)

This section of the client information article delves into the various aspects of Clause 4 of the FIDIC contract, focusing on the general obligations and performance securities that are critical to the successful management of construction projects.

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Sub-Clause 4.1: Contractor’s General Obligations

The Contractor’s general obligations encompass a wide range of responsibilities, including the management of temporary works. It’s crucial that any temporary works designed by the Employer, such as diversions of existing roads or waterways, are clearly outlined in the Specification. The extent of the Employer’s responsibility should be explicitly stated to ensure that the Contractor is not unduly burdened with responsibilities outside their control.

Sub-Clause 4.2: Performance Security

Performance Security is a vital aspect of construction contracts as it safeguards the Employer against any non-compliance by the Contractor. The acceptable forms of Performance Security should be clearly detailed in the tender documents, and may include bank guarantees or other financial instruments. It’s important to ensure these securities comply with the applicable law and include provisions for reduction post the issuance of the Taking-Over Certificate, reflecting the decreasing risk as the project progresses.

Sub-Clause 4.3: Contractor’s Representative

The Contractor’s Representative plays a pivotal role in the execution of the works. Their qualifications should match the main engineering discipline of the works, and their ability to communicate effectively in the defined contract language is crucial. If there are language barriers, provisions should be made for interpreters to ensure clear and effective communication throughout the project duration.

Contractor’s Documents Preparation and Review

The Specification must clearly define which documents the Contractor is required to prepare and submit for review. This clarity helps in avoiding misunderstandings and ensures that all necessary documentation is properly vetted by the Engineer or the Employer’s representatives before proceeding with the works.

Sub-Clause 4.8: Health and Safety Obligations

Health and safety are paramount on any construction site. The contract should specify the health and safety obligations that are the responsibility of the Contractor and those that fall to the Employer, particularly if the site is shared with other contractors. This clear delineation helps prevent disputes and ensures a safe working environment.

Sub-Clause 4.12: Unforeseeable Physical Conditions

In projects involving significant sub-surface works, the risk of encountering unforeseeable physical conditions can be considerable. It is advisable for the Employer to consider this when preparing tender documents and possibly share this risk with the Contractor. Such sharing should be explicitly stated in the contract to avoid future legal complications.

Sub-Clause 4.16: Transport of Goods

In construction projects, the timely and approved delivery of goods to the site is crucial. Under Sub-Clause 4.16, it is mandated that the Contractor must obtain prior permission from the Engineer before delivering goods identified in the Specification that require such permission. This ensures that all deliveries are coordinated and comply with the project’s schedule and legal requirements. The Specification should clearly list these goods to prevent any misunderstandings or delays. This clause underscores the Contractor’s continuous responsibility to adhere to all contractual obligations, regardless of the permissions granted.

Sub-Clause 4.17: Contractor’s Equipment

When it comes to Contractor’s Equipment, it is essential to clearly define which pieces of equipment will be provided by the Contractor and which are supplied by the Employer. If there is a requirement for the vesting of the Contractor’s Equipment to the Employer, the contract should include specific provisions that outline how and when the ownership will transfer, ensuring it aligns with the local laws. These provisions must maintain the Contractor’s right to use the equipment exclusively for the project and re-vest in the Contractor upon completion or upon the issuance of the Taking-Over Certificate.

Sub-Clause 4.18: Protection of the Environment

Environmental protection is a critical concern in modern construction practices. If local environmental laws require the preparation of specific environmental management plans, these must be detailed in the Specification. The plans should outline the necessary steps for review and approval by both the Engineer and relevant regulatory authorities, ensuring that the project adheres to all environmental protection standards.

Sub-Clause 4.19: Temporary Utilities

The availability and specifications of temporary utilities at the site must be detailed in the Specification. This includes a thorough description of each utility, its capacity, location, and cost per unit of consumption. Clear documentation helps in planning and ensures that the Contractor can efficiently manage the use of these utilities throughout the construction process.

Sub-Clause 4.21: Security of the Site

When multiple parties share a site, it is crucial to delineate clearly in the contract the specific security responsibilities of each party. The Specification should outline what security obligations fall under the Contractor’s responsibility and which are managed by the Employer or other parties. This clarity prevents disputes and enhances site management efficiency.

Sub-Clause 4.22: Contractor’s Operations on Site

When multiple contractors share the same site, it is crucial to clearly define and allocate responsibilities for managing waste, including wreckage, rubbish, hazardous materials, and surplus materials. This ensures that the site remains orderly and compliant with environmental and safety regulations. The contract should explicitly outline these responsibilities to prevent any disputes or misunderstandings regarding site cleanliness and waste management.

Milestones in Construction Projects

Milestones are significant as they help manage and track the progress of construction projects. If the Employer wishes to set specific targets within the project timeline that do not coincide with the overall project handover, these should be defined clearly in the Contract Data and described in the Specification as ‘Milestones.’

Example Provisions for Milestones:

  • Define each Milestone in the Contract Data, including the required completion times and the consequences of delayed completion, such as Delay Damages.
  • Introduce a new sub-clause that explicitly handles the conditions and requirements for achieving each Milestone, including the issuance of Milestone Certificates by the Engineer.

Managing Delay Damages and Milestone Certificates

  • It’s essential to specify in the Contract Data the maximum amount of Delay Damages as a percentage of the final Contract Price for failing to meet Milestones.
  • The Engineer should have clear procedures to issue Milestone Certificates or to specify corrective actions if Milestones are not met as per the contract terms.

Legal Recommendations and Contract Management

  • Include provisions in the Contract to allow for adjustments in the payment schedule based on the completion of Milestones.
  • Ensure that all contractual amendments related to Milestones and their management are clearly documented and legally vetted.

Sub-Clause 5.1: Subcontractors

  • Encourage the employment of local subcontractors to boost local employment and compliance with local laws.
  • Clearly define the Engineer’s level of consent required for subcontractors and suppliers, particularly for significant materials or specialized services.

Health and Safety and Environmental Management

  • Outline specific health and safety obligations for each party, especially when the site is occupied by multiple contractors.
  • Ensure environmental management plans are detailed in the Specification and include necessary procedures for review and approval by relevant authorities.

    Sub-Clause 6.8: Contractor’s Superintendence

    It is essential for the Contractor’s superintending staff to effectively communicate in the language defined for communications in the contract (Sub-Clause 1.4 [Law and Language]). If it is permissible that not all superintending staff are fluent in the designated language, the Contractor must ensure that competent interpreters are available during all working hours. This arrangement ensures that the superintending staff can perform their duties effectively, maintaining project standards and compliance.

    Example Provision for Language Requirements:

    • “A reasonable proportion of the Contractor’s superintending staff shall have a working knowledge of [Insert name of language], or the Contractor shall make interpreters available on Site during all working hours in a number deemed sufficient by the Engineer.”

    Additional Provisions to Enhance Site Operations

    Given the diversity and complexity of construction projects, especially in international settings, several additional provisions may be necessary:

    1. Foreign Personnel:
      • Contractors may need to bring foreign personnel who are essential for the execution of the Works. It is crucial for the Contractor to ensure compliance with local immigration laws, including obtaining necessary work permits and visas. Employers should assist in these processes to facilitate timely project execution.
    2. Supply of Necessities:
      • Provisions for the supply of essential resources such as food and water should be clearly stated in the Specification. This ensures the well-being of the Contractor’s Personnel and compliance with health regulations.
    3. Health and Safety Measures:
      • The Contractor must take all necessary precautions to protect personnel from health hazards, including insect and pest nuisances. Compliance with local health authority regulations is mandatory.
    4. Cultural and Legal Compliance:
      • Respect for local customs, festivals, and regulations concerning alcohol, drugs, arms, and ammunition is essential for maintaining good community relations and legal compliance.
    5. Labor Practices:
      • The Contractor must adhere to fair labor practices, avoiding forced labor and child labor. Employment decisions should be based on equal opportunity and non-discrimination, ensuring a fair and inclusive work environment.
    6. Workers’ Rights and Organizations:
      • Compliance with laws that recognize workers’ rights to organize and bargain collectively is crucial. In regions where such rights are restricted, the Contractor should provide alternative means for expressing grievances and protecting rights concerning working conditions.This client information article discusses Clause 7 regarding Plant, Materials, and Workmanship, with a specific focus on ownership and management of Plant and Materials under the contract.

        Clause 7 Ownership of Plant and Materials

        Under the FIDIC contracts, managing high-value items of Plant and Materials requires meticulous attention to ownership details, rights, and obligations. It’s crucial for the Contractor to maintain clear and traceable records of these items, especially when they are under the ownership of the Employer but still in the Contractor’s use.

        Key Considerations for Handling Plant and Materials:

        1. Non-removal of Employer-owned Items:
          • Plant or Materials that have become the property of the Employer should not be removed from the site without explicit consent. If removal is necessary for repairs or replacement, the Contractor must issue a detailed Notice to the Engineer. This Notice should include:
            • The reasons for removal or replacement.
            • Detailed descriptions of the defect or damage.
            • Proposed transportation and insurance details.
            • Expected locations for repair and duration.
            • Delivery schedules for replacements.
        2. Indemnity Provisions:
          • The Contractor must indemnify the Employer against any loss or damage arising from defects in title, encumbrances, or charges on any item of Plant and/or Materials. This ensures the Employer is protected against potential legal issues related to ownership and use of the supplied items.
        3. Handling Items Not Yet Delivered to Site:
          • For items that have become the property of the Employer but have not yet been delivered to the site, strict controls must be placed on their movement to ensure they are delivered directly to the site without unauthorized use or diversion.

        Additional Sub-Clause for Items from Eligible Source Countries

        When projects are financed by international institutions, there may be stipulations on the origin of goods and services used in the project. It’s important to include provisions in the contract that align with these financing stipulations:

        • Goods Origin Requirement:
          • All goods should originate from eligible source countries as defined in the financing institution’s procurement guidelines. This ensures compliance with the funding requirements and avoids potential funding disputes.
        • Transportation and Service Provisions:
          • Goods must be transported by carriers from eligible source countries unless an exemption is provided by the Employer due to excessive costs or delays. Similarly, surety, insurance, and banking services should be sourced from these countries to comply with the contractual and financial stipulations.

Commencement and Time for Completion (Clause 8)

This section of the  article focuses on key aspects of managing commencement, delays, suspension, and the intricacies of scheduling and time extensions as outlined in the contract.The contract should clearly define the stages of the project if it is to be completed in sections. Each stage, referred to as a “Section” in the FIDIC context, should have its Time for Completion specified in the Contract Data. This clarity is crucial for both planning and contractual compliance, ensuring that both parties are aligned on the expectations and timelines for project milestones.

Sub-Clause 8.3: Programme

The programme is an essential tool for monitoring the Contractor’s progress. It is recommended that the programming software preferred by the Engineer be specified in the Specification and drawn to the attention of tenderers in the Instructions to Tender. For less complex projects, the Employer may simplify the requirements for the Contractor’s programme, adapting the detailed requirements to suit the project’s scale and complexity.

Sub-Clause 8.5: Extension of Time for Completion

This sub-clause addresses the conditions under which the Contractor may be entitled to an extension of time (EOT). One notable condition includes “exceptionally adverse climatic conditions,” which should be explicitly defined in the Specification relative to historical weather data for the project’s location. Additionally, the procedures for assessing concurrency in delays attributable to both the Employer and the Contractor should be clearly stated in the Special Provisions, tailored to the legal framework governing the contract. Professional advice from experts in construction programming and delay analysis is highly recommended when drafting these provisions.

Sub-Clause 8.8: Delay Damages

Delay Damages must be set as a reasonable estimate of the loss likely to be suffered by the Employer due to delays. If these damages are disproportionately high, they risk being deemed unenforceable in many jurisdictions. Care should be taken to ensure that any stipulated Delay Damages are justifiable and compliant with applicable laws. Where the contract involves multiple currencies, defining delay damages as a percentage of the Accepted Contract Amount in each currency can provide clarity and fairness.

Incentives for Early Completion

Introducing incentives for early completion can be beneficial for both parties. Such incentives, detailed in the Specification and the Contract Data, should clearly state the bonus applicable for completing the Works or Sections ahead of schedule. It’s important to note that any bonus calculations should be based on the original Time for Completion, without adjustment for any granted EOTs, unless otherwise specified in the contract.

Legal Advice and Support

For detailed guidance on managing contractual obligations related to time management, delays, and incentives, or any other aspects of construction law, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is dedicated to ensuring that your construction contracts are expertly managed, protecting your interests while facilitating the efficient execution of your projects.

Clause 9: Tests on Completion (Sub-Clause 9.1)

Before the issuance of a Taking-Over Certificate, the Contractor must perform specified tests as detailed in the Specification. For projects segmented into stages or sections, testing protocols must account for the interdependencies and the status of other ongoing works. This ensures comprehensive validation of each segment’s readiness in alignment with the overall project timeline.

Testing Software and Simplification:

  • It is recommended that the Specification clearly identifies the preferred programming software to facilitate the Engineer’s monitoring of progress. This ensures uniformity in tracking and reporting across the project’s lifecycle.
  • For less complex projects, simplifying the requirements for the Contractor’s programme can help streamline operations without compromising project integrity.

Clause 10: Employer’s Taking Over (Sub-Clause 10.1)

The process of taking over the Works is structured through clearly defined stages or sections. Each stage should be distinctly outlined in the Contract Data with precise geographical definitions, specifying:

  • The relevant percentage for the release of Retention Money.
  • The Time for Completion for each section.
  • Applicable Delay Damages.

This structured approach aids in systematic project management and clear financial and operational accountability for each stage.

Clause 11: Defects after Taking Over (Sub-Clause 11.3 & 11.10)

The Defects Notification Period may be adjusted based on the complexity of the project. This period should reflect a realistic timeframe for identifying and rectifying defects post-completion. Furthermore, the effects of Sub-Clause 11.10 should be carefully reviewed in relation to the liability period imposed by applicable laws, ensuring that any legal requirements are adequately addressed in the contract.

Additional Provisions:

  • Supervisory Assistance During DNP: For innovative technologies, specifying requirements for the Contractor to provide supervisory assistance during the Defects Notification Period can facilitate smoother operation and maintenance transitions.
  • Variations and Adjustments (Clause 13):

Variations can arise from Contractor proposals, Engineer instructions, or as responses to formal requests for proposals. Managing these effectively requires clear contractual mechanisms.

Adjustments for changes in costs, particularly due to inflation or significant variations in material costs, should be carefully structured with predefined formulas in the Schedule of Cost Indexation.

Incentives for Early Completion:

Bonus incentives for early completion can drive efficiency and are recommended to be explicitly stated in the Specification, aligning them with contractual milestones and financial terms.

Clause 14: Contract Price and Payment

The contract price and payment terms need careful consideration to align with both the Employer’s financial strategies and the project’s funding requirements.

Sub-Clause 14.1: The Contract Price

Contract price arrangements are central to the financial management of a construction project. While cost-plus contracts offer flexibility, they also involve significant risk for the Employer, which is often acceptable only under certain urgent or specific conditions. In contrast, lump-sum contracts, where the scope and costs are clearly defined and agreed upon at the outset, provide greater price certainty and are less susceptible to cost overruns, provided the project scope is well-defined and stable.

Key Provisions for Lump Sum Contracts:

  • Simplify the contract administration by deleting the clauses related to detailed measurements and valuations typically needed for cost-plus contracts.
  • Ensure any variations are managed strictly with clear guidelines on how these are valued and how they impact the overall contract price.

Payment Terms and Procedures

The payment schedule is crucial for maintaining the contractor’s cash flow and should be detailed in the Schedule of Payments. This schedule should include:

  • The timing and amount of each payment,
  • Conditions tied to payment releases, and
  • Adjustments for any advance payments made.
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Sub-Clause 14.2: Advance Payment and Repayment

Advance payments can provide the Contractor with necessary capital to begin work but require careful structuring to ensure that the Employer’s interests are protected. This typically involves:

  • A clear schedule for the advance payment and its repayment,
  • Appropriate guarantees from the Contractor to secure the advance payment,
  • Detailed conditions under which advance payments are adjusted or repaid over the project’s duration.

Adjustments for Changes in Costs

Given the potential for economic fluctuations affecting material costs and labor rates, provisions for adjustments based on predefined cost indices can be critical. These adjustments ensure the contract remains fair and viable for both parties, regardless of external economic conditions.

Legal Advice and Support

Managing contractual obligations regarding payment terms, especially in large construction projects, requires meticulous planning and a deep understanding of both local and international contract law. For professional assistance with your construction contracts, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is committed to ensuring your contracts are crafted to provide clarity, fairness, and legal robustness.

By ensuring detailed attention to the payment clauses of your FIDIC contracts, Josh and Mak International helps you manage financial risks effectively, ensuring your projects are completed within budget and on schedule. Our expertise in construction law ensures that your contractual engagements are robust and tailored to meet both your financial strategies and project requirements.

This section of the article focuses on key aspects of Clause 14 related to payment issues, including payment timing, delayed payments, and the release of retention money.

Sub-Clause 14.7: Payment

Ensuring a balanced cash flow is vital for maintaining a healthy contractor-employer relationship. The periods for payment should be designed to accommodate the Employer’s ability to meet payments promptly while supporting the Contractor’s operational cash flow needs. This balance helps avoid financial constraints that might otherwise delay the project.

Sub-Clause 14.8: Delayed Payment

Delayed payments can significantly impact the Contractor’s financial stability and project progress. To address this, contracts may include provisions for compensating the Contractor for actual financing costs incurred due to delayed payments. This approach considers local financing rates and conditions, providing a fair compensation mechanism that reflects the true cost of capital for the Contractor.

Sub-Clause 14.9: Release of Retention Money

Retention money is a critical financial assurance tool used to ensure that Contractors fulfill their obligations satisfactorily before the total contract price is paid. It is common for a portion of the retention money to be released upon achieving certain milestones, backed by a performance guarantee:

  • Example Provision for Release of Retention: When retention reaches a specified percentage of the contract value (e.g., 60%), a portion (e.g., 50%) may be released to the Contractor provided a suitable guarantee is submitted. This guarantee must be accepted by the Employer and issued by a reputable entity, ensuring the Employer’s interests are protected should the Contractor fail to complete the work satisfactorily.

Currencies of Payment

Handling payments in different currencies can add complexity to contract management. Where possible, specifying a single currency for contract payments simplifies financial management and reduces exchange rate risks:

  • Example Sub-Clause for a Single Currency Contract: All payments under the contract shall be made in the Local Currency, detailed in the Letter of Tender. This stipulation should include provisions for convertibility and allocation of percentages for local costs, ensuring clarity and compliance with local financial regulations.

Legal Advice and Support

Effective management of payment terms within FIDIC contracts requires careful consideration and expertise in contract law, especially in cross-border contexts where multiple currencies and jurisdictions are involved. For professional legal advice on managing these complexities in your FIDIC contracts, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is dedicated to ensuring your construction contracts are structured to support both operational needs and financial security, minimizing risks associated with payment delays and financial transactions.

Financing Arrangements in FIDIC Contracts

For major construction projects, particularly in emerging markets, securing finance often involves engagement with international financial institutions such as development banks, export credit agencies, or aid agencies. These institutions typically have specific requirements that must be incorporated into the contract’s Special Provisions to qualify for financing.

Key Considerations for Integrating Financing Requirements

  1. Tendering Procedures:
    • Ensure that the tendering process conforms to the financial institution’s stipulations to make the contract eligible for funding. This may include specific tendering rules or preferential terms for certain national entities.
  2. Contractual Provisions:
    • Include clauses that address the prohibition against discrimination, the adoption of neutral governing law, and provisions for international arbitration. Such stipulations ensure fairness and broad acceptance in international financing scenarios.
  3. Contract Execution and Effectiveness:
    • Specify that the contract does not become effective until certain financing-related conditions precedent are satisfied. This ensures all financial assurances are in place before project commencement, safeguarding against unforeseen financial disruptions.
  4. Employer’s Financial Obligations:
    • Oblige the Employer to cover payments from their own resources should the financing arrangements fall short. This is crucial for maintaining cash flow and project continuity regardless of funding fluctuations.
  5. References to Financing Arrangements:
    • If the project is financed from multiple sources, the contract should clearly reference these arrangements to ensure transparency and proper allocation of funds according to the financing terms.

Special Provisions for Contractor-Financed Projects

In scenarios where the Contractor arranges financing, the contract must address the financial risks and obligations assumed by the Contractor:

  • Interim Payments and Final Settlements:
    • Arrange for adequate interim payments to manage the Contractor’s cash flow effectively, with a substantial final payment upon completion to ensure project delivery within the agreed financial scope.
  • Security and Guarantees:
    • Require the Employer to provide guarantees for payments, particularly for the substantial final payment. This protects the Contractor against default and ensures financial stability throughout the project lifecycle.

Example Sub-Clause for Contractor Finance:

  • The Employer should procure a payment guarantee, as detailed in the Contract Data, to secure the payment obligations to the Contractor. This guarantee ensures that the Contractor receives due payments in accordance with the project milestones and completion metrics.

Legal Advice and Support

Navigating the financing of large-scale construction projects requires a thorough understanding of both the legal and financial dimensions. For expert advice on FIDIC contracts and financing arrangements, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is adept at crafting contracts that address complex financing issues, ensuring that your projects are financially feasible and legally compliant.

This Section of the  article focuses on Clause 15, which concerns Termination by Employer, and Clause 16, which addresses Suspension and Termination by Contractor. Understanding these clauses is crucial for managing the legal and financial implications of contract terminations.

Clause 15: Termination by Employer

Sub-Clause 15.1: Termination for Contractor’s Default

Before issuing tenders, it is critical for Employers to ensure that the terms related to termination for contractor’s default are consistent with the applicable legal framework. This includes verifying that grounds for termination align with statutory requirements and that the contractual terms will be enforceable under the governing law of the contract.

Sub-Clause 15.2.1: Notice and Sub-Clause 15.2.3: After Termination

These sub-clauses address the procedural requirements for termination, including the need for proper notice and the handling of materials and equipment post-termination. For instance, if the Employer has provided materials or equipment, specific provisions must be made for their return or handling, ensuring compliance with the contractual terms and reducing potential disputes.

Example Provision for Handling Employer-Supplied Materials:

  • A new sub-paragraph might specify that all employer-supplied materials and equipment must be returned or adequately accounted for in the event of termination.

Clause 16: Suspension and Termination by Contractor

Sub-Clause 16.2: Termination by Contractor

This sub-clause provides the Contractor with the right to terminate the contract under specific conditions, such as non-payment or other breaches by the Employer. It is important that these terms are also in line with the legal context of the contract to ensure they are actionable.

Sub-Clause 16.3: Contractor’s Obligations After Termination

Post-termination obligations are crucial for ensuring that the site is left in a safe and orderly state. This might include the removal of goods and the return of any employer-supplied materials or equipment.

Example Sub-Clause for Contractor’s Use of Employer’s Facilities:

  • If the Contractor uses the Employer’s facilities or accommodation during the contract, provisions should be included to ensure the Contractor is responsible for the care of these facilities, specifying the terms of their use and the responsibilities for damages.

General Guidance on Contract Termination

  • Legal Consistency: Always ensure that termination clauses are consistent with the applicable laws to avoid unenforceable provisions.
  • Clear Procedures: Define clear procedures for notice and steps following termination to avoid ambiguity and potential legal disputes.
  • Employer’s Preparedness: Employers should prepare for termination scenarios by verifying contractual terms against financing requirements and legal conditions.
  • Contractor’s Protection: Contractors need to understand their rights and obligations upon termination to protect their financial and operational interests.

Legal Advice and Support

Navigating termination clauses in construction contracts requires careful legal consideration and strategic planning. For expert advice on managing termination provisions in your FIDIC contracts, please contact us at Our team at Josh and Mak International is dedicated to ensuring that your construction contracts are legally sound, protecting your interests while facilitating a clear framework for handling terminations.

Clause 18.2: Exceptional Events

It is important for both parties to understand that “exceptionally adverse climatic conditions” do not qualify as an Exceptional Event under the FIDIC conditions, meaning that such events do not grant either party the right to suspend the works. However, should these conditions delay the project, the contractor may be entitled to an extension of time for completion under Sub-Clause 8.5 [Extension of Time]. This distinction helps in planning and mitigating risks associated with adverse weather.

Clause 19: Insurance

Modifying insurance provisions in the contract requires careful consideration. Employers contemplating providing some of the insurance cover under their own policies should ensure that the terms included in the Special Provisions are precise and comprehensive. We recommend involving a professional with expertise in construction insurance to assist in drafting these provisions to avoid unintentional liabilities.

Clause 20: Employer’s and Contractor’s Claims

This clause deals with the procedural requirements for handling claims that arise during the course of the construction project. Claims may concern issues ranging from contractual interpretations to access disputes or other entitlements under the contract. It is crucial to define the timeframe for claims clearly, as vague terms like “within a reasonable time” may lead to disputes and should be replaced with specific periods.

Clause 21: Disputes and Arbitration

The establishment of a Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Board (DAAB) is strongly recommended to facilitate the real-time resolution of disputes and to support the successful completion of the project. The DAAB should ideally be appointed from the outset and should remain in place throughout the contract duration to assist both parties. Whether to opt for a sole-member or a three-member DAAB may depend on the project’s scale and complexity.

For complex projects, engaging with a DAAB on a standing basis rather than an ad-hoc basis enhances continuity and understanding of the project, thus helping to prevent disputes and resolve any that do arise more effectively.

Legal Advice and Support

Handling the intricacies of FIDIC contract clauses requires detailed understanding and foresight. For expert legal consultation regarding your construction projects under FIDIC contracts, please contact our team at At Josh and Mak International, we ensure that your contracts are managed effectively, minimizing risks and enhancing project execution through strategic legal oversight.

In this section we focus on the critical aspects of Amicable Settlement and the formal arbitration process to equip our clients with strategies for conflict resolution.

Sub-Clause 21.5: Amicable Settlement

Under the FIDIC framework, after a Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Board (DAAB) decision, if any party remains dissatisfied, they are encouraged to seek an amicable settlement before moving to arbitration. This approach fosters a cooperative resolution atmosphere, potentially saving time and resources for both parties involved. Engaging in direct negotiations, mediation, or expert determination can often resolve disputes without the need for more formal proceedings. The Contract may extend the standard 28-day period to allow ample time for these negotiations, reflecting a commitment to resolving issues through dialogue rather than litigation.

Engaging in Mediation

For parties opting for mediation, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) provides updated Mediation Rules that facilitate a structured process by appointing an impartial mediator to guide the parties towards a voluntary and mutual agreement. The mediator helps outline a procedure and timeline for negotiations, ensuring all discussions remain confidential and that the outcomes are not used in subsequent proceedings unless a binding agreement is reached.

Costs of Mediation

Parties are responsible for their costs related to the mediation process and share the mediator’s fees equally, unless misconduct by one party leads to additional costs, which the mediator can order to be reimbursed by the offending party. This cost-sharing model underscores the importance of participating in the mediation process in good faith.

Sub-Clause 21.6: Arbitration

If mediation does not resolve the dispute, parties typically proceed to arbitration as stipulated in the Contract. It is vital to select an appropriate set of arbitration rules and a neutral venue, which can enhance the enforceability of the arbitral award internationally, especially in complex international projects. The ICC Arbitration Rules are widely recognized and provide a robust framework for resolving disputes under diverse legal traditions.

Arbitration Venue and Multi-party Arbitration

Choosing a neutral country for arbitration that supports modern arbitration laws and is a signatory to international conventions like the 1958 New York Convention facilitates the smoother enforcement of awards. Furthermore, consideration may be given to including provisions for multi-party arbitration in the Contract, allowing for the consolidation of related arbitrations or the joinder of additional parties, which must be drafted with precision to ensure legal clarity and effectiveness.

For tailored legal advice on navigating the arbitration process or achieving amicable settlements under FIDIC contracts, please contact our team at At Josh and Mak International, we ensure that our clients are well-prepared to handle disputes efficiently and effectively, safeguarding their interests throughout the construction project lifecycle.

Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems

At Josh and Mak International, we provide detailed legal insights into the effective implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems within the context of FIDIC contracts, especially for those projects designed by the employer. BIM is revolutionizing project management in the construction industry by facilitating improved design accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost-effectiveness.

BIM Overview and Integration with FIDIC Contracts

BIM extends beyond traditional building methods by incorporating digital data technologies at every stage of a project, from initial planning to operation and maintenance. This model promotes collaborative and federated use of shared digital models and data across all project teams, potentially decreasing the need for costly revisions and adjustments typically seen in construction projects.

For projects utilizing BIM, FIDIC contracts provide a balanced legal framework ensuring fairness and mutual benefit for all parties involved. Proper planning and the employment of qualified professionals to manage BIM processes are critical. Legal advice is essential, particularly during the contract negotiation phase, to align BIM-specific needs with the broader contractual framework.

Key Considerations for BIM and FIDIC Contracts

  1. BIM Protocols and Execution Plans: These documents are crucial for defining the levels of detail and the collaborative approach required throughout the project. They help all parties understand their roles and the details necessary at each stage to ensure seamless progress and integration of various aspects of the construction.
  2. Legal and Contractual Adjustments: Given BIM’s nuances, standard FIDIC contract conditions may require adjustments. This includes the definition of new roles, such as a BIM manager separate from the project manager, to handle specific BIM-related responsibilities and risks, potentially beyond the coverage of standard professional indemnity insurance.
  3. Risks and Responsibilities: BIM introduces specific risks, such as data management and cybersecurity threats, that require clear definitions and protocols within the contract. Parties must understand their responsibilities and limitations concerning digital data usage and management.
  4. Dispute Resolution: Given BIM’s collaborative nature, traditional dispute resolution mechanisms may need adjustments. The contract should facilitate resolution processes that reflect the cooperative ethos inherent in BIM projects.

Project Planning and Implementation with BIM

To ensure the success of a BIM-enabled project under a FIDIC contract, careful drafting of the Request for Proposal (RFP) is essential. The RFP should clearly outline the BIM goals and establish criteria for selecting consultants or contractors with the requisite BIM expertise. FIDIC’s Quality Based Selection (QBS) guidelines can aid in selecting the most qualified teams based on their BIM capabilities and experience.


Incorporating BIM into construction projects requires a structured approach to contract management and legal oversight. At Josh and Mak International, we specialize in adapting FIDIC contracts to support the advanced requirements of BIM, ensuring all legal aspects are meticulously addressed to align with the technical complexities of modern construction projects.

For professional guidance on integrating BIM with FIDIC contracts, please contact our team at We are committed to ensuring that your construction projects benefit from both the efficiency of BIM and the legal robustness of FIDIC contracts.

By The Josh and Mak Team

Josh and Mak International is a distinguished law firm with a rich legacy that sets us apart in the legal profession. With years of experience and expertise, we have earned a reputation as a trusted and reputable name in the field. Our firm is built on the pillars of professionalism, integrity, and an unwavering commitment to providing excellent legal services. We have a profound understanding of the law and its complexities, enabling us to deliver tailored legal solutions to meet the unique needs of each client. As a virtual law firm, we offer affordable, high-quality legal advice delivered with the same dedication and work ethic as traditional firms. Choose Josh and Mak International as your legal partner and gain an unfair strategic advantage over your competitors.

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