How do you do Due Diligence of Land in Pakistan? How do you do Due Diligence of Land in Pakistan?

Due diligence is the process of gathering information about a property before buying it. It is important to do due diligence on any property, but it is especially important in Pakistan, where there is a high risk of fraud and corruption.

Our law firm, Josh and Mak International, extends its legal expertise to clients seeking to navigate the intricacies of real estate transactions within Pakistan. Our comprehensive Due Diligence Services are tailored to mitigate risks and ensure a smooth property acquisition process. 

  1. Legal Verification and Title Search:

    • Conduct an exhaustive title search to verify the legal ownership of the property.
    • Examine all relevant documentation including title deeds, lease agreements, and any encumbrance certificates to ensure clarity and legitimacy of title.
  2. Regulatory Compliance Check:

    • Ensure compliance with all requisite local and national regulatory norms including obtaining the necessary approvals and NOCs from respective authorities.
    • Advise on zoning laws, land use regulations, and any other statutory compliances essential for the proposed transaction.
  3. Financial Due Diligence:

    • Assess the financial implications of the transaction, including evaluating any outstanding liabilities, taxes, or other financial encumbrances associated with the property.
  4. Physical Inspection and Valuation:

    • Facilitate physical inspection of the property to ascertain its condition, value, and to verify the accuracy of the representations made by the seller or developer.
  5. Review of Contracts and Agreements:

    • Scrutinize all contracts, agreements, and other legal documents involved in the transaction to safeguard client interests.
    • Ensure fair and transparent terms of sale, lease, or any other arrangement concerning the property.
  6. Assessment of Advertising and Marketing Material:

    • Analyse the advertising and marketing material to ensure all claims are accurate, verifiable, and compliant with legal standards.
  7. Evaluation of Market Conditions:

    • Provide insights into market conditions, competition, and any anti-competitive practices that could potentially affect the transaction.
  8. Engagement with Associations and Regulatory Bodies:

    • Liaise with local real estate associations and regulatory bodies to gather essential industry insights and verify the credibility of the developer or seller.
  9. Understanding Role of Middlemen and Agents:

    • Conduct due diligence on real estate agents or middlemen involved to ascertain their legitimacy and transparency in dealings.
  10. Infrastructure and Development Assessment:

    • Evaluate the level of infrastructure development and compare it with the claims made by the developer or seller, ensuring alignment with client expectations.
  11. Preparation for Possible Litigation:

    • Prepare for potential legal disputes by advising on litigation risks and representing client interests in any arising legal matters.
  12. Documentation and Closure:

    • Assist in the preparation, review, and execution of all closing documents to ensure a legally sound and smooth closure of the transaction.
  13. & 14 Post-Acquisition Support:

    • Offer post-acquisition support including registration, tax advice, and any other legal assistance required post transaction.
  1. Real Estate Regulatory Affairs Consultation:
  • Offer consultations on the evolving regulatory landscape within the real estate sector in Pakistan, including the roles and implications of various developmental authorities like LDA, CDA, and KDA among others.
  • Advise on the recent policies, regulations, and practices impacting the real estate market, ensuring clients are well-informed and compliant.
  1. Coordination with Government and Municipal Bodies:
  • Facilitate interactions and liaisons with relevant governmental and municipal bodies to secure necessary approvals, NOCs, and permits essential for the transaction.
  1. Dispute Resolution:
  • Provide dispute resolution advice to address any conflicts that might arise during or after the transaction. This includes negotiations, mediation, arbitration, or litigation, as necessary.
  1. Environmental and Safety Compliance:
  • Advice on the requisite environmental and safety legal standards, and advise on any necessary measures to be undertaken to attain compliance.
  1. Banking and Financial Services Coordination:
  • Coordinate with banking and financial institutions for the facilitation of loans, mortgages, or other financial services required for the transaction.
  1. Educational Initiatives:
  • Engage in educational initiatives to enhance clients’ understanding of the real estate market, regulatory framework, and the due diligence process.
  1. Consumer Protection Advisory:
  • Advise on consumer protection laws and regulations, ensuring that clients are aware of their rights and remedies in the realm of real estate transactions.
  1. Taxation Advisory:
  • Provide insightful advice on the tax implications of the real estate transaction, ensuring a clear understanding of tax liabilities and compliance with taxation laws.
  1. Customised Reporting:
  • Prepare thorough reports encapsulating the findings of the due diligence process, accompanied by professional advice and recommendations for informed decision-making.
  1. Continuous Communication:
  • Maintain open and continuous communication with clients throughout the due diligence process, ensuring they are well-informed and comfortable every step of the way.
  1. Legal Representation:
    • Represent clients in any legal proceedings, negotiations, or regulatory interactions, ensuring their interests are robustly defended and advocated.

Each of these services is diligently tailored to meet the unique requirements and circumstances surrounding our clients’ real estate transactions. We at Josh and Mak International are devoted to ensuring a seamless, secure, and satisfactory transactional experience for our esteemed clientele. Our team of seasoned legal experts is always ready to provide prompt, professional, and prudent legal services catering to the dynamic real estate market in Pakistan.

Our services are meticulously designed to provide a well-rounded, diligent, and informed approach towards real estate transactions, ensuring our clients are well-protected against any unforeseen legal complications. At Josh and Mak International, we strive for the satisfaction and security of our clients through proficient legal counsel and an unwavering commitment to excellence.

How can you protect yourself from bad bargains in the Pakistani Property Sector

The real estate sector in Pakistan is engulfed in a myriad of issues ranging from lack of regulatory frameworks, conflicts of interest among development authorities, to the lack of proper real estate financing institutions. These issues not only impede the growth of the sector but also expose potential buyers to significant risks.

It’s crucial for property buyers in Pakistan to conduct rigorous due diligence before making any investment.

Verification of Legal Status of Property :

    • Ensure that the property or housing scheme is duly registered with the relevant development authority like LDA, CDA, or KDA.
    • Verify the legal status of the project by checking the NOC (No Objection Certificate) granted by the relevant development authority.
    • In case of new developments, ensure that the developer has obtained all necessary approvals, including the master plan approval.
  1. Check for Any Pending Litigations:

    • Investigate if there are any ongoing litigations concerning the property or the developer. Issues such as multiple sales of a single plot or any disputes regarding land possession should be red flags.
  2. Review of Developer’s Track Record:

    • Explore the past projects undertaken by the developer to gauge their credibility and quality of work.
    • Check if the developer has faced bankruptcies or defaults in the past, and understand the reasons behind such occurrences.
  3. Financial Due Diligence:

    • Inquire about the financial health of the developer.
    • Look into the availability of real estate financing facilities, especially if you are looking into a development project.
  4. Inspection of Property and Verification of Claims:

    • Physically inspect the property and verify the claims made by the seller or developer regarding amenities, infrastructure, and other facilities.
    • Ensure that the marketing material and claims made by the developers align with the ground realities.
  5. Verification of Land Title and Ownership:

    • Obtain a copy of the land title and verify ownership through the relevant land registration authorities.
    • Ensure that the land title is clear and free from any encumbrances or disputes.
  6. Understanding of Regulatory Framework:

    • Familiarize yourself with the regulatory framework governing the real estate sector in the relevant jurisdiction.
    • Understand the role and mandate of development authorities and the protections available to buyers.
  7. Check on Price Fairness and Transparency:

    • Ensure that the pricing of the property is fair and transparent.
    • Look for any history of false price declarations or unfair pricing practices by the developer or seller.
  8. Consultation with Real Estate Experts:

    • Engage with real estate agents or consultants who are duly registered and have a good understanding of the market conditions and legal requirements.
    • Seek guidance on the documentation and approval processes required for property transactions.
  9. Review of Tax Implications:

    • Understand the tax implications of the property transaction.
    • Ensure that all tax policies have been adhered to, and all necessary tax payments have been made.
  1. Review of Advertising and Marketing Material:

    • Scrutinize the advertising and marketing material related to the property or housing scheme. Ensure that all claims made are factual and can be verified.
    • Look for approval from the relevant authorities on the marketing material, especially in case of new housing schemes.
  2. Evaluation of Competition and Market Conditions:

    • Understand the level of competition within the real estate sector in the relevant region, especially between private and public sector developers.
    • Assess the impact of any anti-competitive practices or barriers to entry that might affect the value or potential returns on the property.
  3. Engagement with Associations and Regulatory Bodies:

    • Engage with local real estate associations or bodies like ABAD for insights on the industry practices and to verify the credibility of the developer or seller.
    • Seek guidance from regulatory bodies on the legal and procedural aspects of the property transaction.
  4. Understanding the Role of Middlemen and Agents:

    • If dealing through real estate agents, ensure they are registered and have a valid license to operate. Verify their credentials through the relevant real estate associations.
    • Understand the commission structure and any other fees involved in the transaction to avoid any hidden or unexpected costs.
  5. Assessment of Infrastructure Development:

    • Evaluate the level of infrastructure development within the property or housing scheme, including utility provisions, road networks, and other essential services.
    • Compare the infrastructure development with the claims made by the developer or seller in their marketing material.
  6. Review of Conversion and Usage Regulations:

    • Understand the regulations surrounding the conversion of residential plots to commercial plots and vice versa.
    • Ensure that the intended use of the property complies with the zoning and usage regulations set by the development authorities.
  7. Engagement with Online Platforms:

    • Utilize online real estate platforms to compare prices, verify property details, and gather additional information.
    • Be cautious of any fraudulent listings and verify the legal status of projects advertised online.
  8. Inspection of Development Authorities’ Websites:

    • Check the websites of development authorities for lists of approved and blacklisted schemes, updates on NOCs, and other relevant information that could inform your decision.
  9. Public and Consumer Feedback:

    • Seek feedback from other buyers or consumers who have dealt with the same developer or seller.
    • Look for any public notices or warnings issued against the developer or the housing scheme.
  10. Preparation for Possible Litigation:

    • Be prepared for possible litigation especially in a sector known for legal disputes. Have a legal advisor to guide you through the process to ensure that your interests are well protected.

In summary, the due diligence process for buying property in Pakistan, as gleaned from the text, necessitates a multi-faceted approach. It involves legal verification, financial assessment, engagement with regulatory bodies, and thorough investigations into the credibility and practices of developers or sellers involved. This exhaustive checklist seeks to provide a structured pathway to navigate the complexities and challenges highlighted in the Pakistani real estate sector, ensuring a well-informed and legally compliant property acquisition process.

There are a number of steps you can take to do due diligence on land in Pakistan. These steps include:

  • Check the title: The first step is to check the title of the land. You can do this by obtaining a copy of the land record from the relevant government authority. The land record will show who owns the land and any encumbrances on the land, such as mortgages or liens.
  • Inspect the property: Once you have checked the title, you should inspect the property. This includes looking for any physical damage to the property and checking for any encroachments on the property.
  • Conduct a title search: A title search is a more in-depth investigation of the title of the land. This search will look for any defects in the title, such as forged documents or missing documents.
  • Hire a reputable lawyer and law firm: It is always advisable to hire a lawyer to help you with the due diligence process. Josh and Mak International can help you understand the legal implications of buying the land and can represent you in any negotiations with the seller.
See also  A review of recent case law on Breach of Contract in Pakistan

By following these steps, you can reduce the risk of buying a property that is defective or that has been illegally acquired. Housing societies often have illegally acquired land in Pakistan, which creates litigation problems later.If you buy land in such societies, they may face a stay order and state penalties later on.It is always advisable to check in detail and ask questions as to how a society has acquired their land.

Here are some additional tips for doing due diligence on land in Pakistan:

  • Ask for references: Ask the seller for references from previous buyers. This will give you an idea of the seller’s reputation.
  • Check the seller’s background: Do a background check on the seller. This will help you identify any red flags, such as a history of fraud or bankruptcy.
  • Get everything in writing: Make sure all agreements are in writing and signed by both parties. This will help to avoid any disputes down the road.

By following these tips, you can protect yourself from making a bad investment in land in Pakistan.Josh and Mak International can help you every step of the way.If you are buying a property or land in Pakistan and need due diligence services, send us an email at

The notion of due diligence, an intrinsic aspect of legal and commercial transactions, significantly manifests in land transactions. Courts, in various instances, have underscored the imperativeness of due diligence in safeguarding the interests of the parties involved. Through meticulous examination and analysis of relevant records and facts, due diligence ensures the legitimacy and transparency of land transactions, thereby fostering a sense of confidence and fairness among the parties involved.

A review of case law where due diligence of real estate transactions has been emphasised and mentioned

In the case of “2006 YLR 1060 Lahore High Court Lahore” between Fateh Muhammad (through Legal Heirs) and Zahoor Ul Haq, the Court expounded on the importance of due diligence in the realm of land transactions. The crux of the matter revolved around the rightful ownership of a piece of land, with both parties laying claim to it. The petitioners, having purchased the land from ostensible owners, asserted their rightful ownership based on the transaction. The Trial Court initially sided with the petitioners, acknowledging their claim as legitimate. However, the Appellate Court overturned this verdict, contending that the respondents, along with the successor-in-interest of the petitioners, were also rightful heirs to the deceased issueless owner, and hence entitled to a share of the inheritance.

Critically, the essence of due diligence was brought to light when the evidence regarding the examination of revenue records and payment of consideration was presented. A witness produced by the respondents affirmed the exercise of due diligence through a thorough examination of the revenue record, which remained un-rebutted. This testimony, combined with the provisions outlined in Section 41 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, as argued by the petitioners, resonated with the principle of estoppel, thereby vindicating the claim of the petitioners. The respondents, having previously accepted the ostensible owner as the exclusive and absolute owner, were estopped from denying the title of the petitioners, who were merely successors-in-interest of the ostensible owner. The Appellate Court, having overlooked the implications of Section 41 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, was adjudged to have exercised its jurisdiction illegally and with material irregularity. The Lahore High Court, considering the due diligence displayed in examining the revenue records, set aside the judgments and decrees of the Appellate Court, reinstating those of the Trial Court.

The case in point, “1992 MLD 711 Board of Revenue Punjab” between Bashir and Ghulam Qadir, draws attention to another aspect of due diligence in land transactions. Here, the dispute emerged post-consolidation, where the petitioners sought a review of the consolidation scheme under the West Pakistan Board of Revenue Act 1957, alleging a discrepancy in entitlement. The core argument was to add the petitioner’s share in the joint Khata to their separate Khata, a plea raised for the first time in the review petition.

The essential conditions for a review as stipulated under Section 8 of the Act include the discovery of new and important matter or evidence which, despite exercising due diligence, was not within the knowledge or could not have been produced earlier; some mistake or error apparent on the face of the record; and any other sufficient reason. In this scenario, the plea for a review was contended to be incompetent as the conditions for a review, especially the exercise of due diligence, were not met. The assertion was that the evidence in question was within the knowledge of the petitioners and could have been produced earlier had due diligence been exercised. The lack of due diligence in this case not only barred the petitioners from a favourable review but also highlighted the legal necessity of due diligence in ensuring the fair and just handling of land transactions. Moreover, the application for review was dismissed as it was also barred by time, and the application for condonation thereof was unaccompanied by an affidavit or supportive evidence, thus reinforcing the critical role of due diligence in such legal endeavours.

The case “1986 CLC 395 Karachi High Court Sindh” between Bhaledino and Din Muhammad sheds light on the importance of due diligence in the context of producing evidence concerning land transactions. In this case, revolving around the Sindh Rented Premises Ordinance 1979, the tenants sought to introduce additional evidence post the closure of evidence production. The evidence in question, relating to ejectment proceedings against one of the tenants, was contended to have come to the knowledge of the tenants subsequent to the closure of evidence. However, the court noted that the evidence could have been known and produced earlier if the tenants had acted with due diligence. The tenants, having failed to avail the opportunities of producing the evidence and cross-examining the landlord on the matter now sought to be introduced, were perceived to have acted negligently. This negligence was juxtaposed with the notion of due diligence, which if exercised, could have potentially altered the course of the legal proceedings. The application for permission to produce additional evidence was dismissed, underscoring the indispensable role of due diligence in the meticulous examination and production of evidence, thereby contributing to a fair adjudication of land disputes.

These cases collectively underline the pivotal role of due diligence in land transactions, be it in the examination of records, production of evidence, or the pursuance of rightful claims. The judicious exercise of due diligence not only fortifies the legal positions of the parties involved but also significantly contributes to the upholding of justice and fairness in the complex domain of land transactions.

The cited judgments further illustrate the imperative nature of due diligence in property transactions and how courts have nuanced its application depending on the specifics of each case.

In the case, “2003 PLD 494 Supreme Court” between Jamil Akhtar and Las Baba, the essence of due diligence was explored in a scenario where a vendor, after entering into an agreement to sell a property to the plaintiff and executing a registered power of attorney in his favour, subsequently sold the land to other vendees. The plaintiff, aggrieved, filed a suit which was contested by the subsequent vendees on the ground of being bona fide transferees for consideration without notice of the plaintiff’s rights. The court observed that due diligence, in this context, would have entailed a scrutiny of the Revenue Record or the Registration Office by the subsequent vendees. However, the registered deed, which was a simple general power of attorney in favour of the plaintiff, did not present any red flags to the subsequent vendees. The real document that could have put them on alert was the agreement to sell, which was unregistered. The court acknowledged that despite the exercise of due diligence, the subsequent vendees could not have been aware of the agreement to sell between the original vendor and the plaintiff, thus deeming them bona fide purchasers for consideration without notice under Section 27 of the Specific Relief Act, 1877.

The case, “2017 CLD 538 Lahore High Court Lahore” between Asim Riaz Qureshi and Bank Al-Falah Limited, presented a different contour of due diligence within a financial agreement for property purchase. Here, the defendant availed finance from the plaintiff bank for purchasing a plot, later contending that the bank should have checked the title of the plot as the seller was not the actual owner, rendering the finance agreement void. The court, however, delineated the agreement as a finance agreement, not an agreement between the seller and purchaser of the plot, and therefore not void due to the belated disclosure of fraud. The court noted that the defendant did not exercise proper due diligence before purchasing the plot, invoking the principle of “caveat emptor” or “let the buyer beware.” This principle essentially places the onus of due diligence on the buyer, underscoring the necessity of thorough examination and verification in property transactions to avoid unwarranted legal complications.

These adjudications collectively demonstrate the judicial interpretation and application of due diligence within various facets of property transactions, be it a direct sale, an agreement to sell, or a financial arrangement for property purchase. The courts, through these judgments, accentuate that the exercise of due diligence is not merely a prudent practice but a legal requisite that significantly influences the adjudication of disputes in property transactions.

The jurisprudence surrounding due diligence in property transactions continues to evolve, addressing the myriad ways in which parties and authorities engage in these transactions. The cases presented further illuminate the court’s stance on due diligence and the safeguarding of individuals’ rights in property transactions.

In the case of “2011 PLD 163 Supreme Court” concerning a Human Rights case, the Supreme Court took cognizance of complaints against housing scheme sponsors accused of dishonesty and malfeasance, impacting a large number of residents/owners and purchasers. The Court, vested with powers under Article 184 of the Constitution, endeavoured to protect the public’s fundamental rights to life and property against fraudulent housing schemes. Key in this case was the Court’s emphasis on the legal and moral obligation of sanctioning and regulatory authorities to exercise maximum care, caution, and due diligence when granting sanctions and permissions for launching housing schemes. The Court elucidated several guidelines and directions aimed at ensuring the genuine and reliable execution of such schemes, thereby protecting the interests and rights of the innocent victims. This included ensuring that the land proposed for such schemes was free from litigation and encumbrances, assessing the financial capacity and know-how of the sponsors, ensuring accessibility to public roads, and provision for essential facilities like sewerage and electricity. By spotlighting the role of due diligence, the Court sought to fortify the legal framework surrounding housing schemes, thereby aiming to mitigate the exploitation of individuals by unscrupulous sponsors.

On the other hand, the case “2010 YLR 1252 Lahore High Court Lahore” between Shafqat Ali and the Senior Member, Board of Revenue, Punjab, Lahore, delves into the scope of review concerning the appointment of Lambardar under the West Pakistan Land Revenue Rules, 1968. Here, the Lahore High Court underscored the significance of due diligence in the context of review jurisdiction. The Court asserted that the power of review under Section 8 of the West Pakistan Board of Revenue Act, 1957 could only be exercised if there was a substantial error apparent on the face of the record which, despite due diligence, could not have been brought on the record earlier. The Court’s emphasis on due diligence reaffirms the principle that a review does not permit a re-hearing of the matter and underlines the importance of due diligence in ensuring that all pertinent information is accurately presented and considered during the original proceedings.

These cases collectively depict a landscape where the principle of due diligence is central to the proper adjudication of matters pertaining to property transactions, whether it be in the context of housing schemes or land revenue rules. The courts, through these judgments, advocate for a more rigorous application of due diligence by both individuals and regulatory authorities to uphold the sanctity of legal processes and to safeguard the rights and interests of the parties involved in property transactions.

See also  How do you do due diligence of a private limited company in Pakistan?

Some more cases below serve as a comprehensive exemplar of the various facets and legal intricacies surrounding property transfer and the requisite due diligence incumbent upon parties involved in such transactions. They unambiguously advocate for a thorough understanding and adherence to the legal framework governing property transactions to preclude disputes and ensure the safeguarding of individuals’ rights.

  1. Insufficiency of Agreement to Sell: A recurring theme across several cases, notably in “2023 SCMR 815 Supreme Court: Rao ABDUL REHMAN (DECEASED) vs MUHAMMAD AFZAL (DECEASED)”, is the fundamental principle that an agreement to sell, in isolation, is not tantamount to a transfer of property rights. The requisite execution of a registered sale deed is pivotal for a legal transfer of ownership. This underscores the essentiality of a meticulously crafted and duly registered sale deed to consummate a property transfer.

  2. Obligation to Perform: The cases accentuate the obligation of parties to exhibit a fervent willingness and readiness to fulfill their contractual obligations, as a precursor to seeking specific performance from the courts. This principle underpins the necessity of an unequivocal commitment to contractual obligations in property transactions.

  3. Inheritance Concerns: The narrative surrounding inheritance-related transfers, as seen in “2023 SCMR 566 Supreme Court: AMIR MUHAMMAD KHAN vs State”, elucidates the potential complications and motivations that may affect property transfers through inheritance. The legal validation of such transfers is imperative to prevent disputes and ensure the rightful distribution of inherited property.

  4. Timing and Premature Action: The cases spotlight the significance of timing in property transactions, particularly the prematurity of actions taken before the completion of a sale, which could lead to legal complications.

  5. Limited Ownership: The principle of limited ownership, especially concerning female owners under certain circumstances, manifests the necessity to ascertain the extent of ownership rights prior to engaging in property transactions.

  6. Registered vs Unregistered Deed: The precedence of an unregistered sale deed over a registered one under certain circumstances delineates the critical role of possession and completeness of transaction, necessitating thorough due diligence to verify the authenticity and legal standing of property deeds.

  7. Protection under Unregistered Deed: This principle further amplifies the importance of a thorough legal examination of property deeds and the circumstances under which rights can be protected even in the absence of registered deeds.

  8. What May Be Transferred: The delineation between gifts and transferable property, as well as the legal framework governing what constitutes a valid transfer, underscores the necessity for a robust understanding and adherence to legal protocols in property transactions.

  9. Presumption of Completeness and Ignorance of Legal Formalities: Cultural nuances and potential ignorance of legal formalities by parties, as elucidated in “2023 SCMR 1072 Supreme Court: Pirzada NOOR-UL-BASAR vs Mst. PAKISTAN BIBI”, underscore the requisite for enhanced due diligence and legal counsel to ensure the legitimacy and completeness of property transactions.

  10. Authenticity of Gift-Mutation and Essentials of a ‘Sale’: The scrutiny required to validate a gift, and the essentials delineating a complete ‘sale’, highlight the importance of legal validation and adherence to statutory requirements in property transactions.

  11. Legal Entity’s Capacity to Transfer Property: As seen in “2013 CLD 1687 Supreme Court: SYMPHONY (PVT.) LTD. vs Haji FAZAL KARIM”, the ability of a legal entity to transfer property and the void nature of a conveyance deed post-dissolution of a company, signifies the necessity for meticulous legal due diligence to ascertain the legal capacity of parties in property transactions.

These adjudications collectively underscore the imperative of comprehensive due diligence encompassing the verification of ownership rights, examination of registered and unregistered deeds, adherence to legal formalities, and a thorough understanding of the contractual obligations inherent in property transactions. They advocate for a robust legal framework and diligent practices to ensure the lawful and seamless transfer of property, thereby averting disputes and safeguarding the rights and interests of all parties involved.

Practical Guidelines for Property Transactions

  • Due Diligence: Before purchasing any property, it’s crucial to carry out comprehensive due diligence to verify the title and legal standing of the property in question.
  • Legal Advice: Always consult with a knowledgeable lawyer to draft and review all legal documents related to the property transaction.
  • Local Laws and Regulations: Familiarise yourself with the local laws and regulations governing property transactions. This includes the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, and the Land Revenue Act, 1967, among others.
  • Corporate Bodies and Residential Properties: It is generally illegal for corporate bodies to use residential properties for commercial purposes, although certain service-based industries may be exempt.
  • Foreign Ownership: Foreigners can own property in Pakistan, but they must comply with all legal formalities.
  • Inheritance Laws: The applicable inheritance laws in Pakistan will depend on religious affiliations; for Muslims, it would be the Muslim Personal Laws.
  • Stamp Duty: This is a government fee levied on property transactions, and it’s usually the buyer’s responsibility to pay it.
  • Building Approval: Before any construction work, it’s mandatory to get the building plan approved from the concerned authority to avoid any legal complications later.
  • Land Records: In Pakistan, land records are maintained by the district administration revenue department.

By adhering to these guidelines and understanding the legal terminologies, you can navigate the complex landscape of property law in Pakistan more confidently and securely. For any further queries or legal assistance, feel free to contact us at Josh and Mak International. We are committed to providing you with impeccable service that safeguards your interests.

Making Informed Choices

  • Co-Ownership: If you are a co-owner of a property, you can sell your share, but only with clearly defined boundaries or with the express consent of the other co-owners.
  • Drafting of Sale Deed: It’s imperative that the sale deed is drafted by a competent lawyer who is well-versed in property laws, rather than relying on templates or non-professional scribes. This ensures that all clauses are in your best interest and comply with the law.
  • Essentials of Gift: If you’re considering gifting property, be aware of the three essentials: the offer by the donor, acceptance by the donee, and delivery of possession. Gifts can be revoked unless made to a person within a prohibited degree of relationship, such as those with whom marriage is not permissible.
  • Distinction Between Gift and Will: A gift takes effect immediately upon completion, while a will only takes effect upon the death of its maker. Also, a person can gift all their property to a legal heir during their lifetime, but can only will away up to one-third of their property to a non-legal heir, unless all legal heirs consent to a larger portion.
  • Validity and Revocation of Power of Attorney: The individual holding a Power of Attorney has a fiduciary duty to act in the principal’s best interest. A Power of Attorney can be revoked by the principal at any time and automatically becomes null and void upon the death of the principal.
  • Buying Under-Construction Properties: For properties under construction, ensure that the builder’s plans are approved and that the land ownership is clear. Checking the builder’s compliance with the Securities & Exchange Commission of Pakistan can provide additional peace of mind.
  • Mortgaged Properties: Properties under mortgage cannot be sold. Always check for any outstanding mortgages or loans on the property you are interested in.
  • Required Documents for Ownership: To legally own a house, you need any deed verifying the transfer in your favour, such as a sale deed, allotment letter, or sale certificate.
  • Stamp Duty: This is a tax levied on property transactions. In most cases, the buyer is liable for payment. A stamped document is considered a proper and legal document.
  • Building Plan Approval: Before starting any construction, it is mandatory to get the building plan approved from the concerned building control authority to avoid future legal complications.
  • Maintenance of Land Records: In Pakistan, land records are kept by the district administration’s revenue department. These records are crucial for determining the ownership and boundaries of land or property.
  • Sales of Land  by Companies: Before buying property from a company, verify that the property is not mortgaged or being used as security against a loan. Also, check who is authorised to act on the company’s behalf for selling the property.


Navigating the intricacies of property law in Pakistan can be challenging, but with the right legal guidance, the process can be far less daunting. At Josh and Mak International, we aim to make this journey as smooth as possible for you. We’re here to offer our legal expertise in all aspects of property law, from due diligence and transactional support to litigation services. Whether you’re a first-time buyer or an experienced investor, our comprehensive services are designed to meet your specific needs and offer peace of mind.

Should you have any more questions or require further clarification on any of the points discussed, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. Your satisfaction and effective client communication are our top priorities.

The complexities around the transfer of properties and the associated taxes in Pakistan are manifold, and it’s crucial to navigate these with precision and expertise. The transfer of property is not just a simple transaction between two parties; it involves a myriad of legal intricacies and financial obligations, primarily in the form of transfer taxes.

Title and Transfer of Property

The title of a property essentially represents the bundle of rights an owner possesses, including the rights to use, lease, sell, and even gift the property. A title deed is a legal document that serves as evidence of these rights and contains detailed information about the property, such as its dimensions, value, and previous ownership.

The transfer of a property essentially involves the change of its title from one ‘person’ to another, and it’s important to note that in legal parlance, the term ‘person’ extends beyond individuals to include entities like companies, trusts, and associations. Thus, these entities can both own and transfer property.

Legality of the Transfer

It’s crucial that the person transferring the property actually holds the title. Essentially, you can’t transfer what you don’t own. For instance, if someone owns a 2,500 square foot plot, they cannot legally transfer a 2,501 square foot plot.

Documentation and Record-Keeping

The transfer is formalised and becomes legally binding when it’s recorded in governmental records. A sale deed, also known as a registered deed or registered transfer deed, serves as the official document for this transaction. It’s imperative that this deed be properly drafted, usually under the guidance of a legal expert, to prevent any future disputes.

When Is a Transfer Required?

Transfers are most commonly required during the sale of a property. However, other circumstances such as inheritance upon the death of the title holder, gifting of property, or acquisition for a project also necessitate a transfer. These transfers don’t happen automatically; they must be formally entered into governmental records.

Cost Implications

Transferring property isn’t a cost-free exercise. On top of the agreed sale price, there are additional costs in the form of transfer taxes, which are generally not included in the property’s price. These can include:

  • Transfer Fee
  • Stamp Duty
  • Capital Value Tax
  • Other miscellaneous taxes

These taxes vary depending on various factors, including the property’s value and location. They can be levied by federal, provincial, or local governments. For example, federal taxes might include income tax on rental income and short-term capital gains tax. Provincial taxes often include stamp duty and registration fees, while local taxes could be related to the transfer of property records and mapping.

Types of Transfer Taxes

Transfer taxes can come under various names, including but not limited to:

  • Transfer Fee
  • Registration Fee
  • Stamp Duty
  • Notary Fee
  • Real Estate Transfer Tax
  • Gift Tax
  • Gain Tax
  • Capital Gains Tax
  • Property Tax
  • Estate Tax
  • Immovable Property Taxes

In essence, the cost of buying a property is not limited to the sale price negotiated between the buyer and seller. It also includes these various forms of transfer taxes, making the actual cost of acquisition considerably higher.

For anyone looking to buy, sell, or transfer property in Pakistan, understanding these elements is crucial. At Josh and Mak International, we offer comprehensive advice and legal services to guide you through this complex process. Our objective is to ensure that all transactions are carried out in a legally compliant and financially prudent manner.

See also  Bait-and-Switch Tactics in Pakistani Property Law: How to Protect Yourself and Seek Legal Recourse

Tax Liabilities and Responsibilities

It’s imperative to know who is responsible for bearing the cost of these various transfer taxes. While it’s common for the buyer to shoulder most of these costs, there may be instances where the seller has some financial obligations as well. Therefore, it’s beneficial for both parties to clarify this upfront to avoid any misunderstandings later.

Timing of Tax Payments

Most of these transfer taxes are due at the time of the actual property transaction, meaning they are usually paid before the transfer is officially recorded in government records. Failure to pay these taxes can result in legal complications and could potentially halt the transfer process.

Consult Professional Services

Given the complexity and legal obligations associated with property transfers and associated taxes, consulting professionals is highly advised. Lawyers can help draft and review the necessary documents, while tax consultants can offer advice on how to minimise tax liabilities within the bounds of the law. Moreover, professionals can help ensure that you are in compliance with federal, provincial, and local laws, thereby minimising the risk of legal issues down the line.

International Buyers and Sellers

For international parties interested in buying or selling property in Pakistan, it’s important to consult with legal experts familiar with both local and international property laws. This can help navigate any additional requirements or restrictions that may apply, including those related to the transfer of funds across borders.


Transferring property in Pakistan is a multi-faceted process that involves not just the buyer and the seller, but also various governmental bodies at the federal, provincial, and local levels. In addition to understanding the legalities surrounding property titles and the mechanics of the transfer process, parties must also be aware of the financial implications, particularly in terms of transfer taxes.

At Josh and Mak International, our comprehensive legal services are designed to guide you through each step of this complex procedure. From ensuring legal compliance to offering financial advice, we are committed to providing a seamless experience for our clients. Your satisfaction and effective communication are at the core of our service ethos.

For further information or advice tailored to your specific circumstances, please do not hesitate to contact us. We are here to assist you in making informed decisions and to help you navigate the intricacies of property transfer and tax obligations in Pakistan.

Navigating the intricacies of property law in Pakistan requires a detailed understanding of the legislative framework that governs real estate transactions. This legislative framework is principally constituted of four major laws, each addressing different aspects of property transactions. These laws are:

  • Registration Act 1908: This law sets out the procedures for registering property, providing a roadmap for how and where to present the requisite documents. It is an exhaustive guide that leaves no room for ambiguity and ensures that every transaction is well-documented.
  • Stamp Act 1899: This law outlines the government’s revenue collection through stamp duties. It necessitates that buyers and sellers validate their transactions legally by using stamped papers, the costs of which may vary due to inflation or changes in government policy.
  • Land Revenue Act 1967: This law details the organisational structure of the land and revenue departments. It covers various aspects such as land surveys, boundary marking, and revenue collection. It also addresses more complex issues like partitions and arbitrations.
  • Transfer of Property Act 1882: This law stipulates how property transfers should occur, identifying who is legally entitled to transfer property and under what conditions. It provides guidelines for both tangible and intangible property transfers.

Each of these laws serves a specific function and ensures that both buyers and sellers have a clear understanding of their rights and responsibilities. Hence, it is crucial for all parties involved—real estate agents, buyers, and sellers—to have a basic knowledge of these laws to avoid complications.

Selling a Property: FAQs

What documents need to be prepared before selling a property?

The sale deed or title document needs to be prepared, which will include essential details about the transaction such as property location, names of the parties, identification number of the property, selling price, and payment details.

What steps need to be followed after finding a suitable buyer?

Once a suitable buyer is found, negotiations around the price should occur. The buyer should also be taken for a property visit. The seller must have possession of the title deed to prove ownership.

What is stamp duty and stamp paper?

Stamp duty is a tax imposed by provincial governments. It is generally paid by the buyer and is based on the property’s value. The stamp paper outlines the seller’s intent to transfer the property at an agreed price.

When is the property title transferred?

The title is transferred once the buyer makes the payment and the seller hands over the title deed. A new set of documents is then prepared for the buyer, and the property needs to be registered in his name. Both parties must meet the local registrar to formally declare the property transfer.

Buying a Property: Important Considerations

Sale Deed/Agreement or Title Document: This is the most crucial document, and it should be drafted with legal expertise. This document is evidence of the property ownership and is essential for any future transactions involving the property.

Stamp Duty: This is a provincial tax, usually paid by the buyer, and varies from one province to another. It is a percentage of the transaction value and must be paid during the property’s registration.

Registration: The finalised sale deed should be registered at the local sub-registrar’s office. Both the buyer and seller need to be present for this process. For overseas Pakistanis, a duly authorised attorney can complete this process.

Agricultural Land Transactions: For such transactions, a ‘Fard’ document needs to be prepared, detailing all relevant information about the land. Post-transaction, a new ‘Fard’ mentioning the new owner must be obtained.

In summary, the process of buying or selling property in Pakistan involves numerous steps that are regulated by different laws. Understanding these laws and procedures is essential for anyone looking to engage in property transactions. At Josh and Mak International, we offer expert legal advice to help you navigate these complex processes. Our primary aim is to ensure that your transactions are both legally compliant and financially sound.

The process of buying or selling property involves several complex steps, and it’s crucial to be well-versed in the legalities and documentation to avoid potential pitfalls. The following points offer some advice for buyers:

Tips for Property Buyers:

  • Historical Ownership Record: Always begin with a thorough check of the property’s history. This is crucial for identifying any potential ownership disputes, mortgages, or other encumbrances. A skilled lawyer can assist in this, scrutinising records from the sub-registrar’s office, among other sources.
  • Title and Possession: Ensure that the seller has both the title and possession of the property. Also, confirm that all municipal requirements have been met if the property is a constructed building. Make sure that there are no tenants and that all property-related dues are cleared.
  • Mortgages: It’s essential to establish whether the property is mortgaged. If it is, the original title document won’t be available with the seller. Always request the original title document to avoid being a victim of fraud.

Legal Framework:

Real estate transactions in Pakistan are primarily governed by the Transfer of Property Act 1882, Land Revenue Act 1967, Stamp Act 1899, and Registration Act 1908, among other provincial and municipal laws.

Rented or Leased Properties:

Landlords must ensure a properly drafted and executed lease or rent agreement. Leases over a year must be registered. Tenants, too, should take steps to protect their rights, such as making rent payments via crossed cheque and retaining receipts.

Property Purchase in Pakistan:

Due diligence is paramount when purchasing property in Pakistan. Apart from scrutinising the current seller’s ownership title, a careful buyer will also review titles of previous owners going back 20 to 30 years. This is to avoid any future counter-claims or litigation.

Use of Attorneys in Transactions:

In Pakistan, property transactions often involve attorneys, referred to as ‘Mukhtar-e-Aam’ or ‘Mukhtar-e-Khaas.’ Authenticity of the Power of Attorney should be verified from the sub-registrar’s office.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Aks Shajra: It’s a graphical representation identifying a specific land’s location.
  • Fard Malkiat: This is the official record maintained by local government revenue authorities.
  • Registry: Also known as ‘Bay Nama,’ it’s a document confirming the transfer of property ownership.
  • Intiqal or Mutation: This is the most authentic record of title transfer for most types of properties in Pakistan.
  • Iqrar Nama: Also known as Agreement to Sell, it’s a promise by the seller to transfer the property.
  • Mukhtar Nama: Also known as Power of Attorney, this document appoints a person as the legal attorney for property transactions.
  • Tattima Registry: This is a supplementary Sale Deed.
  • Khasra: This is a unique identification number for a piece of land.
  • Gardawri: This is the act of maintaining the record of possession for mostly agricultural land.

In conclusion, real estate transactions are complex and fraught with potential risks. Therefore, it’s advisable to seek professional legal advice to navigate these complexities. At Josh and Mak International, we are committed to providing comprehensive legal services to help you through this process, making sure that all your transactions are legally compliant and financially secure.

Real Estate Agents and their Role:

Real estate agents can offer valuable insights into market trends and property values, but their role doesn’t replace that of a legal advisor. Always ensure that you engage a trustworthy agent who is well-versed in local property laws and regulations. They can act as intermediaries in negotiations and can help facilitate the transaction, but the legal due diligence should be performed by a competent lawyer to safeguard your interests.

Procedural Safeguards:

Before finalising a property transaction, ensure that the procedural safeguards are in place. These might include:

  • Verifying that the property’s physical attributes match those described in the title deed.
  • Cross-verifying the validity of all documents related to the property.
  • Ensuring that the terms of the sale are clearly defined to avoid any ambiguities that could lead to disputes later.

Importance of Legal Counsel:

While real estate agents play a crucial role in property transactions, legal counsel is indispensable for ensuring that all legal requirements are met. A lawyer can scrutinise the contract, verify the authenticity of the title deed, and ensure that the transaction is conducted in compliance with relevant laws. At Josh and Mak International, we offer these services to ensure that your property transactions are secure and legally sound.

Additional Costs:

Remember, the actual cost of buying a property is not just the price negotiated between the buyer and the seller. There are additional costs such as transfer fees, stamp duty, registration fees, and capital value tax that are borne by the buyer, which can considerably inflate the overall cost. These must be accounted for in your budgeting.

Post-Transaction Steps:

After the transaction is completed, make sure that the title of the property is correctly transferred to your name in all relevant governmental records. This is crucial for establishing your legal ownership of the property.

Common Pitfalls:

  • Fraudulent Sellers: Always check the credentials of the seller to ensure they are who they claim to be.
  • Disputed Land: Be cautious of lands embroiled in legal disputes or those that have unclear titles.
  • Unapproved Layouts and Plans: Ensure that the property complies with all zoning laws and building codes.


Property transactions require a nuanced understanding of various laws and thorough due diligence. Given the complexities involved, it’s advisable to consult professionals who can guide you through the process, ensuring that all legal and procedural requirements are meticulously followed. At Josh and Mak International, we strive to offer comprehensive, legally sound advice to make your property transactions as smooth and secure as possible.

By The Josh and Mak Team

Josh and Mak International is a distinguished law firm with a rich legacy that sets us apart in the legal profession. With years of experience and expertise, we have earned a reputation as a trusted and reputable name in the field. Our firm is built on the pillars of professionalism, integrity, and an unwavering commitment to providing excellent legal services. We have a profound understanding of the law and its complexities, enabling us to deliver tailored legal solutions to meet the unique needs of each client. As a virtual law firm, we offer affordable, high-quality legal advice delivered with the same dedication and work ethic as traditional firms. Choose Josh and Mak International as your legal partner and gain an unfair strategic advantage over your competitors.

error: Content is Copyright protected !!