Pakistanis Filing for Divorce, Khula and Custody Matters in Pakistan when either of the parties are Abroad Pakistanis Filing for Divorce, Khula and Custody Matters in Pakistan when either of the parties are Abroad 

Key Takeaways for Pakistanis Filing for Divorce, Khula and Custody Matters in Pakistan when either of the parties are Abroad 

The case law discussed above offers valuable insights for Pakistanis living abroad who are considering filing for divorce and custody matters in Pakistan. Here are the key takeaways to keep in mind:

  • Territorial Jurisdiction and Foreign Residence: The jurisdiction of Pakistani courts, especially under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, extends to cases involving non-resident Pakistanis who are living abroad. The location where the wife is residing at the time of the pronouncement of divorce plays a crucial role in determining the appropriate jurisdiction.
  • Reconciliation and Remedies: Pakistani courts provide a forum for reconciliation between spouses even when they are residing abroad. Reconciliation efforts and legal remedies can be pursued through the Pakistan Mission in the foreign country where the parties are living. This avenue ensures that parties have access to reconciliation proceedings, even when they are outside Pakistan.
  • Dowry and Matrimonial Disputes: The case law demonstrates that suits related to the recovery of dowry articles, ornaments, clothing, and financial resources borrowed by one spouse from the other can be successfully pursued in Pakistan. Courts issue notices and summon the concerned parties for legal proceedings, ensuring that such disputes can be effectively addressed.
  • Foreign Legal Action: While legal action can be initiated in Pakistan, it’s also important to consider the possibility of initiating legal proceedings in a foreign country. This dual approach offers flexibility and options for seeking resolution, particularly if both parties are residing abroad.
  • Flexibility in Custody Matters: Custody matters, especially for minors, are decided based on the welfare of the child. Courts prioritize the well-being and best interests of the child, and custody decisions are made after carefully considering factors such as the child’s age, residence, and care arrangements.
  • Legal Effect of Divorce Certificates: The issuance of divorce certificates by Pakistani authorities abroad, without proper adherence to legal requirements, may render them null and void. It’s essential to ensure that the necessary procedures are followed, including attestation by relevant authorities, to ensure the legal validity of divorce certificates.
  • Access to Justice: The case law emphasizes that non-resident Pakistanis have access to legal remedies and can seek redress for their matrimonial disputes, even when they are living abroad. The legal system is designed to accommodate such scenarios and provide a platform for addressing these concerns.

Can a Pakistani woman living abroad file family dispute cases in Pakistan when her husband is also living outside Pakistan?

The answer is affirmative. When two Pakistanis married to each other find themselves in different countries abroad, their matrimonial disputes can be effectively addressed in Pakistan. This legal avenue provides a means for seeking justice and resolution even when the parties are residing outside the country.

In response to the specific query, a Pakistani woman living abroad can indeed file family dispute cases in Pakistan, even when her husband is also residing outside the country. The legal framework in Pakistan allows for the resolution of such matters through the courts, regardless of the geographical location of the parties involved.

One notable example of a potential legal action involves cases related to the recovery of dowry articles, golden ornaments, clothing, and money borrowed by the husband from the wife. In such instances, a suit can be initiated in Pakistan’s courts, seeking the return of these assets and financial resources. The court, as part of its process, will typically issue a notice to the husband, summoning him to appear before the court to address the allegations and claims made by the wife.

It’s important to note that while legal action can be pursued in Pakistan, it may also be possible to initiate legal proceedings in a foreign country, especially if both parties are residing abroad. This dual approach provides flexibility and options for seeking redress and resolution.

In conclusion, non-resident Pakistanis, including a Pakistani woman living abroad, have the legal right to file family dispute cases in Pakistan, even when her husband is also residing outside the country. The legal system in Pakistan accommodates such scenarios and offers a platform for pursuing justice, whether it involves the recovery of assets or addressing other matrimonial concerns. Therefore, it is entirely feasible for non-resident Pakistani individuals to file for divorce in Pakistan and seek legal remedies for their matrimonial disputes.

Now, turning to the questions we are often asked by Overseas Pakistanis regarding the divorce notice

  • The concept of “one talaq” implies that a single pronouncement of divorce is sufficient. There is no requirement to sign three talaqs. Furthermore, the husband can delegate another person as his representative to appear before the Arbitration Council.
  • In a scenario where the husband has issued the divorce on a stamped paper with proper witnesses and subsequently failed to respond to three notices sent by the Union Council, the wife has presented herself at the Union Council and endorsed his statement (Bayan). Considering a total time span of approximately five months from the initial notice, it is important to establish whether the wife is eligible to obtain a Talaq Certificate. According to the law, the Chairman of the Union Council is obligated to confirm the effectiveness of the divorce after a waiting period of 90 days. Consequently, the secretary of the Union Council is also legally obliged to issue the divorce certificate.

Case Note: Jurisdictional Aspects of Divorce Proceedings in Foreign Residence

Citation Name: 2020 PLD 679 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Mst. ASMA BIBI
Opponent: CHAIRMAN RECONCILIATION COMMITTEE

In the case of Mst. Asma Bibi v. Chairman Reconciliation Committee, the Lahore High Court Lahore deliberated upon the territorial jurisdiction of the Chairman in divorce matters under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The petitioner, Mst. Asma Bibi, challenged the validity of an ex-parte order by the Chairman of the Reconciliation Committee that confirmed her divorce. The core issue revolved around the residence of both parties abroad at the time of the alleged talaq.

The petitioner unequivocally asserted, with supporting affidavit, that she was residing abroad during the purported pronouncement of talaq. Relying on SRO No. 1086(K)61, dated: 09-11-1961, the Court observed that officers of Pakistan Mission abroad were authorized to assume the functions of the Chairman under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. Consequently, the Chairman of the Reconciliation Committee lacked the authority to exercise the jurisdiction he had assumed. Both the divorce registration certificate and the impugned order of confirmation were deemed to be devoid of legal effect and value. The constitutional petition was allowed on these grounds.

Citation Name: 2016 MLD 1061 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Mst. SANA ASIM HAFEEZ
Opponent: ADMINISTRATOR/CHAIRMAN, ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION COURT

In the case of Mst. Sana Asim Hafeez v. Administrator/Chairman, Arbitration and Conciliation Court, the Lahore High Court Lahore examined the issuance of a certificate of effectiveness of divorce in a scenario where spouses held dual nationality and were residing outside Pakistan. The key contention revolved around the validity of the divorce proceedings and the jurisdiction of the Chairman Union Council.

The divorce deed was executed in the UK, where both spouses resided and held dual nationality. The husband appointed an arbitrator through a special power-of-attorney sent from abroad. The wife, however, argued that she was never served notice of divorce at her UK address. It was highlighted that the Pakistan Mission in the UK could have been approached for reconciliation or effectiveness of the divorce deed. Notably, the husband had submitted to the jurisdiction of the Family Division of the High Court of Justice in London, UK.

The Court held that proceedings in family matters should be initiated where the children or wife are ordinarily residing. As both parties were permanent residents of the UK, the Arbitration Council in Pakistan lacked jurisdiction. Moreover, the Court found the proceedings initiated against the wife to be in violation of law and based on mala fide intentions of public functionaries. In line with its power to provide relief in cases of malfeasance or injustice, the Court declared the impugned divorce certificate null and void.

In both cases, the Lahore High Court Lahore demonstrated its commitment to upholding the principles of jurisdiction and due process in divorce matters involving overseas residents. The decisions emphasize the importance of following established legal procedures and ensuring fairness in divorce proceedings, even when parties reside abroad.

Case Note: Applicability of Limitation Act and Absence from Pakistan in Dower Recovery Suit

Citation Name: 2015 YLR 2375 Peshawar High Court

Appellant: Mst. Kulsoom Bibi
Opponent: Muhammad Waseem

In the case of Mst. Kulsoom Bibi v. Muhammad Waseem, the Peshawar High Court dealt with a constitutional petition concerning the limitation period and the exclusion of time due to the defendant’s absence from Pakistan in a dower recovery suit.

The dispute centered around the demand for prompt dower by the plaintiff, Mst. Kulsoom Bibi. The defendant, Muhammad Waseem, argued that the plaintiff’s demand was made in November/December 2007, and since the suit was filed in February 2011, it exceeded the limitation period prescribed by Article 103 of the Limitation Act, 1908.

The Court clarified that if the demand for dower had been made within Pakistan in November/December 2007, the limitation period would be governed by Article 103. Conversely, if the demand was made outside the country, Section 13 of the Limitation Act, 1908 would be applicable. Section 13 dictates that the period of absence of the plaintiff from Pakistan should be excluded when computing the limitation period.

The Court emphasized that Section 13 does not make exceptions for cases where the cause of action arose in a foreign country or when the defendant was in a foreign country at the time of the cause of action. It held that the time during which the defendant had been absent from Pakistan, whether continuous or at intervals, must be excluded when calculating the limitation period.

In this case, the marriage took place in July 2007, and both parties had left Pakistan for the United Kingdom within three months. Thus, the demand for dower in November/December 2007 within Pakistan was implausible. The Court noted that neither spouse was present in Pakistan three months after the marriage, rendering the demand impossible. The plaintiff was divorced in the United Kingdom, and neither party had returned to Pakistan.

The Court concluded that as per Section 13 of the Limitation Act, 1908, the time during which a party remained abroad should be excluded when calculating the limitation period. Consequently, the petitioner’s suit was deemed within the allowable time, leading to the reversal of the findings of the lower courts. The constitutional petition was granted in favor of Mst. Kulsoom Bibi.

This case underscores the importance of considering the defendant’s absence from Pakistan when determining the limitation period in a dower recovery suit. It establishes that the applicability of Section 13 of the Limitation Act, 1908 extends to cases involving foreign residence and provides clarity on the exclusion of time for computation of the limitation period.

Case Note: Custody Dispute and Alleged Kidnapping of Minor Daughter by Mother 

Citation Name: 2015 PLD 382 Karachi High Court Sindh

Appellant: Mst. Marium Tariq
Opponent: SHO of Police Station Defence

The case of Mst. Marium Tariq v. SHO of Police Station Defence before the Karachi High Court Sindh delved into a custody dispute and the alleged offense of kidnapping concerning a minor girl. The petitioner, Mst. Marium Tariq, was the mother of the minor girl, and the respondent was the Station House Officer (SHO) of Police Station Defence.

The matter involved the custody of a minor girl born to a divorced couple. The father had initiated a custody application before the Family Court. During the pendency of the custody application, the mother, Mst. Marium Tariq, left the country to pursue post-graduate studies abroad, taking the minor girl, who was 2-½ years old at the time. The Family Court eventually granted custody to the mother, and the decision was upheld by the Appellate Court and the High Court.

The father filed an FIR against the mother, accusing her of kidnapping the minor girl. His contention was based on allegations that the mother had denied him access to his daughter and had taken her abroad without permission.

The Court considered several crucial aspects. It recognized that both parents were natural guardians of the minor and that the element of mens rea for kidnapping was absent in this case. The mother had left the country for further studies with her daughter due to compelling circumstances and the child’s age. The Court noted that the minor had been in the mother’s custody since birth and that no snatching of custody had occurred.

The Court emphasized that the offense of kidnapping under Section 363 of the Penal Code aimed to protect the rights of parents and was not intended to be exploited for victimization or oppression after divorce. The order for visitation rights granted to the father by the Family Court had not been implemented, and the proper course of action was for the father to seek the implementation of this order from the Family Court.

The Court ultimately quashed the FIR lodged against the mother for kidnapping, along with all related proceedings. It ruled that the intervention of INTERPOL was not warranted. Instead, it directed the father to approach the Family Court for the implementation of the visitation rights order. The Court also instructed the Immigration Authorities to secure the minor’s passport upon her return to Pakistan. The constitutional petition was disposed of in accordance with these directives.

This case underscores the importance of prioritizing the best interests of the minor in custody disputes and highlights that the offense of kidnapping should not be invoked as a tool of victimization or exploitation between divorced parents.

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Case Notes: Various Legal Issues Involving Family Matters

1. Citation Name: 2014 PLD 494 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Almas Mubashar
Opponent: Mubashar Hanif

In the case of Almas Mubashar v. Mubashar Hanif, the Lahore High Court Lahore addressed the issuance of a certificate of effectiveness of divorce and the validity of the notice of divorce. The petitioner-wife argued that the notice of divorce issued by the respondent-husband from abroad was not in accordance with the law. However, the Court held that the divorce became effective automatically after 90 days from the receipt of notice by the Nazim/Administrator of the Union Council. The Court emphasized that the right of divorce under Islamic Law was conferred upon the husband and the technicality of a certificate of talaq was not required. The constitutional petition was dismissed.

2. Citation Name: 2013 CLC 568 Supreme Court Azad Kashmir

Appellant: Attique Ahmed
Opponent: Adla Noreen

In the case of Attique Ahmed v. Adla Noreen, the Supreme Court of Azad Kashmir dealt with a custody dispute involving a 2-year-old child. The contest was between the divorced mother and the father living abroad, who had contracted a second marriage. The Court ruled that the welfare of the minor, taking into account age, sex, and personal law, was paramount. It was decided that the mother could provide better care for the child, and being the natural guardian, she was awarded custody. The minor’s full-time care and attention were deemed necessary, and the father’s claim for custody was dismissed.

3. Citation Name: 2012 PLD 166 Karachi High Court Sindh

Appellant: Dr. Aisha Yousuf
Opponent: Khalid Muneer

In the case of Dr. Aisha Yousuf v. Khalid Muneer, the Karachi High Court Sindh examined a custody dispute involving a minor daughter. The dispute was between the father, who had a second wife, and the real/divorced mother of the child. The Family Court had initially granted custody to the mother while allowing the father visitation rights. The Appellate Court upheld the decision with a modification. The mother, being a doctor by profession, sought to take the minor daughter with her to Dubai for work. The Court allowed the mother to take the minor abroad, subject to furnishing a personal recognizance bond as a guarantee for the child’s return. The Court emphasized that both parents had the right to pursue their careers while considering the best interests of the child.

These case notes highlight a variety of legal issues in family matters, including divorce, custody disputes, and the rights of parents in different circumstances. The courts’ decisions emphasize the importance of considering the welfare of minors and the rights of parents while making judgments in such cases.

Case Notes: Legal Matters Involving Family Disputes and Custody

1. Citation Name: 2022 MLD 731 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Samia Anwar
Opponent: Nasir Hussain

In the case of Samia Anwar v. Nasir Hussain, the Lahore High Court Lahore dealt with a suit for recovery of maintenance, delivery charges, and dowry articles. The petitioner (wife) claimed that the respondent (husband) had behaved cruelly, pronounced divorce, and refused to pay maintenance and delivery charges. The trial court decreed the suit for maintenance but dismissed the claim for delivery expenses. Both parties filed appeals, but they were dismissed by the District Court. The High Court upheld the maintenance allowance of Rs. 7000/- per month for the minor after considering their financial status. The constitutional petition was dismissed.

2. Citation Name: 2021 YLR 1989 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Sarosh Sikander
Opponent: Guardian Judge, Lahore

In the case of Sarosh Sikander v. Guardian Judge, Lahore, the Lahore High Court Lahore addressed the issue of interim custody of a minor. The grandmother of the minor had filed an application for interim custody and visitation rights, while the mother of the minor opposed it on the grounds of maintainability. The Guardian Court rejected the mother’s application. The High Court ruled that the term ‘parent’ did not encompass grandparents and that only parents could request visitation rights for a minor. However, in this case, the intensity of estrangement between the parents was significant, and the minor’s real father, who was a foreign national, had not actively participated in the proceedings. Therefore, the grandmother’s application for visitation rights was deemed competent, and the constitutional petition was dismissed.

These case notes highlight legal matters involving family disputes, divorce, maintenance, and custody of minors. The courts’ decisions emphasize the importance of considering the best interests of the parties involved, including minors, while interpreting relevant laws and regulations.

Case Notes: Dissolution of Marriage and Talaq Issues

1. Citation Name: 2011 CLC 566 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Wahid-ul-Islam
Opponent: Shaheen Akhtar

In the case of Wahid-ul-Islam v. Shaheen Akhtar, the Lahore High Court Lahore addressed a dispute involving dissolution of marriage on the ground of khula and non-payment of maintenance. The husband contested the suit and filed a suit for restitution of conjugal rights. The trial court decreed the dissolution of marriage and dismissed the suit for restitution of conjugal rights. The appellate court upheld the trial court’s decision. The husband argued that without the return of dower and other articles allegedly taken by the wife, a decree for dissolution of marriage could not be passed. The Court held that the husband’s failure to specifically claim the return of dower implied a waiver on his part. The Court emphasized that not only had reconciliation failed, but the wife also expressed strong animosity towards the husband. The decree was upheld as valid by the competent court.

2. Citation Name: 2010 PLD 681 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Romana Zahid
Opponent: Chairman, Arbitration Council/Nazim Union Council

In the case of Romana Zahid v. Chairman, Arbitration Council/Nazim Union Council, the Lahore High Court Lahore dealt with the validity of talaq sent to the wife along with notice to the Chairman, Arbitration Council from abroad. The husband’s attorney appeared in arbitration proceedings based on a Special Power of Attorney attested by the Pakistan Embassy. The issuance of a Certificate of Talaq by the Chairman based on the unverified talaq notice was challenged. The Court ruled that while pronouncement of talaq could be in any form, the notice to the Chairman must comply with the requirements of the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961 and the Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984. The Court set aside the impugned Certificate and directed the husband to issue a fresh notice in writing under the Ordinance, duly verified by the Pakistan Embassy, for further proceedings.

These case notes provide insights into legal issues surrounding the dissolution of marriage, khula, maintenance, and the validity of talaq notices. The courts’ decisions highlight the importance of following legal procedures and requirements in matters of family disputes and divorce.

Case Notes: Divorce, Custody, and Maintenance Issues

1. Citation Name: 2010 MLD 989 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Syeda Wajiha Haris
Opponent: Chairman, Union Council No.7, Lahore

In the case of Syeda Wajiha Haris v. Chairman, Union Council No.7, Lahore, the Lahore High Court addressed the issue of notice of divorce and reconciliation between spouses. The petitioner-wife received notice of divorce from her husband through the Chairman of the Union Council, offering reconciliation proceedings under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The Court held that for foreign resident Pakistanis, there is a remedy and forum for reconciliation under the Ordinance through the Pakistan Mission in the countries of their residence. The Court directed the husband to approach the Pakistan Mission abroad for registering the divorce and conducting reconciliation proceedings. The proceedings before the Chairman Union Council were declared to be incompetent.

2. Citation Name: 2009 MLD 736 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Bashir Ahmad
Opponent: Shazia Kausar

In the case of Bashir Ahmad v. Shazia Kausar, the Lahore High Court dealt with the custody of minors after the divorce of their parents. The father had contracted a second marriage and was living abroad, while the mother had not remarried. The minors were living with their mother, receiving education and proper care. The Court held that the welfare of the minors was best served by remaining in the custody of their mother.

3. Citation Name: 2009 CLC 563 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Dr. Zafar Ali Khan
Opponent: Additional District Judge, Lahore

In the case of Dr. Zafar Ali Khan v. Additional District Judge, Lahore, the Lahore High Court dealt with maintenance issues. The petitioner, a qualified doctor with two wives living in separate houses, had been married multiple times and had been traveling abroad. After divorce, he had entered into another marriage. The maintenance allowance awarded to the respondent was enhanced by the Lower Appellate Court. The Court found that the evidence of the petitioner’s income was not believable and upheld the enhanced maintenance allowance. The Court declined to interfere in the judgment and decree passed by the Lower Appellate Court.

These case notes provide insights into legal issues related to divorce notices, reconciliation proceedings, custody of minors, and maintenance awards. The courts’ decisions emphasize the importance of considering the welfare of minors and the financial circumstances of parties in family law matters.

Case Notes: Divorce, Custody, and Conciliation

1. Citation Name: 2006 CLC 1544 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Syed Musa Raza Rizvi through Special Attorney
Opponent: Mst. Syeda Farkhanda Jabeen Rizvi

In the case of Syed Musa Raza Rizvi v. Mst. Syeda Farkhanda Jabeen Rizvi, the Lahore High Court addressed issues related to divorce and conciliation proceedings. The marriage between the parties had ended in divorce, and the petitioner, who was abroad, had sent multiple divorce notices to the wife. Conciliation proceedings were conducted, but the Chairman of the Union Council did not issue a certificate of effectiveness of divorce, claiming that the divorce deed was doubtful and not sent through the Embassy. The Court found that the divorce deed and Power of Attorney were properly attested by the Embassy and allowed the constitutional petition, setting aside the Chairman’s order and directing a fresh decision on the conciliation proceedings.

2. Citation Name: 2003 YLR 3054 Peshawar High Court

Appellant: Sardar Hussain
Opponent: Mst. Parveen Umar

In the case of Sardar Hussain v. Mst. Parveen Umar, the Peshawar High Court dealt with the issue of custody of minors after divorce. The petitioner had divorced the respondent, who had entered into a second marriage and was living happily with three minors from the petitioner and two from her second husband. The petitioner sought custody of the minors, arguing that they were over seven years old and that the mother’s second marriage was a disqualifying factor. The Court emphasized that the welfare of the minors was paramount, regardless of the father’s age-based right to custody. The Court held that the mother’s second marriage was justified given her circumstances and her commitment to the minors’ well-being. The Court upheld the Appellate Court’s decision to grant custody to the mother, considering the minors’ education, upbringing, and overall welfare.

These case notes highlight the importance of proper documentation in divorce proceedings and the overriding principle of the welfare of minors in custody decisions. The courts consider the individual circumstances of each case and prioritize the best interests of the children involved.

Case Notes: Custody of Minors and Territorial Jurisdiction in Divorce Proceedings

1. Citation Name: 1999 MLD 1580 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Zahoor Ahmed
Opponent: Rukhsana Kausar

In the case of Zahoor Ahmed v. Rukhsana Kausar, the Lahore High Court addressed the issue of custody of a minor child. The petitioner, the father of a minor aged about 9 years, had divorced the child’s mother and contracted a second marriage. He sought custody of the minor. However, the petitioner did not personally appear in court as a witness, and the minor, who was well-adjusted and happily residing with his maternal grandparents, stated that he did not desire to go with his father. The Court concluded that it would not be safe to remove the minor from his current family setup and ruled that custody should remain with the maternal grandparents, as determined by the lower courts.

2. Citation Name: 2020 PLD 679 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Mst. Asma Bibi
Opponent: Chairman Reconciliation Committee

In the case of Mst. Asma Bibi v. Chairman Reconciliation Committee, the Lahore High Court considered the territorial jurisdiction of the Chairman in divorce proceedings. The petitioner, the wife, challenged the validity of an ex-parte order confirming her divorce issued by the Chairman of the Reconciliation Committee. The Court found that the husband was permanently residing abroad and the petitioner was also abroad at the time of the alleged divorce. The petitioner argued that officers of Pakistan missions abroad were authorized to discharge the functions of the Chairman under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The Court declared the divorce registration certificate and the impugned order of confirmation to be of no legal effect and value, ruling that the Chairman did not have the authority to exercise such functions in this case.

These case notes highlight the importance of considering the well-being of minors in custody decisions and the need to follow proper jurisdictional procedures in divorce proceedings, especially when parties are residing abroad. The courts take into account the preferences and best interests of the children involved while also ensuring that legal procedures are followed appropriately.

Case Notes: Divorce Proceedings and Custody of Minors

1. Citation Name: 2016 MLD 1061 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Mst. Sana Asim Hafeez
Opponent: Administrator/Chairman, Arbitration and Conciliation Court

In the case of Mst. Sana Asim Hafeez v. Administrator/Chairman, Arbitration and Conciliation Court, the Lahore High Court dealt with divorce proceedings involving spouses residing outside Pakistan with dual nationality. The wife contended that she was not served with a notice of divorce in the UK through the Pakistan Commission, and the Chairman of the Union Council was not competent to issue a certificate of divorce. Both spouses held dual nationality and were residing in the UK at the time of the execution of the divorce deed. The Court determined that the divorce proceedings initiated against the wife were in violation of law and rules and were based on mala fide actions of public functionaries. The Court declared the impugned divorce certificate null, void, and of no legal effect, and accepted the constitutional petition.

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2. Citation Name: 2012 PLD 166 Karachi High Court Sindh

Appellant: Dr. Aisha Yousuf
Opponent: Khalid Muneer

In the case of Dr. Aisha Yousuf v. Khalid Muneer, the Karachi High Court addressed the issue of custody of a minor daughter. The contest was between the father, who had a second wife, and the real/divorced mother of the minor. The Family Court initially granted custody to the mother with specific visitation rights to the father. The Appellate Court upheld the order of the Family Court with some modifications. The mother, who was a doctor by profession, had secured a job in Dubai and sought custody of the minor. She assured the court that she would return to Pakistan with the minor every month and provide opportunities for the father to meet the minor. The High Court recognized the mother’s right to pursue her career and allowed her to take the minor abroad. However, the court required her to furnish a Personal Recognizance Bond (P.R. Bond) for Rs.1 million with one surety to ensure her return to Pakistan.

These case notes emphasize the complexities involved in divorce proceedings when parties are residing abroad and have dual nationality. The courts take into account jurisdictional issues, the well-being of minors, and the rights of parents in making custody decisions. It also highlights the importance of considering the career and livelihood of the custodial parent when determining custody arrangements.

Case Notes: Jurisdiction of Reconciliation Committee in Divorce Proceedings

1. Citation Name: 2010 MLD 989 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Syeda Wajiha Haris
Opponent: Chairman, Union Council No.7, Lahore

In the case of Syeda Wajiha Haris v. Chairman, Union Council No.7, Lahore, the Lahore High Court addressed the issue of jurisdiction in divorce proceedings between spouses residing abroad. The petition was directed against a notice of divorce received by the petitioner/wife from the Chairman of the Union Council, offering reconciliation proceedings under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The Court held that both the petitioner/wife and husband were residing abroad, and for foreign resident Pakistanis, the law had provided a remedy and forum for reconciliation under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961, through the Pakistan mission in the countries of their residence. The Court directed the husband to approach the Pakistan mission in the country abroad to register the divorce pronounced by him upon the wife and for reconciliation proceedings under the Ordinance to be undertaken there. The proceedings before the Chairman of the Union Council were declared to be incompetent.

2. Citation Name: 2019 PLD 285 Lahore High Court Lahore

Appellant: Ms. Sadaf Munir Khan
Opponent: Chairman, Reconciliation Committee

In the case of Ms. Sadaf Munir Khan v. Chairman, Reconciliation Committee, the Lahore High Court considered the territorial jurisdiction of the Chairman of the Reconciliation Committee in divorce proceedings. The Court emphasized that the basic factor determining the jurisdiction of the Union Council and/or Chairman was the place where the wife was residing at the time of pronouncement of divorce. In this case, both the husband and wife were permanently residing in a foreign country (United States of America) at the time of divorce pronouncement, with the husband stationed in another foreign country (Germany) due to his job. The Chairman, Reconciliation Committee (based in Pakistan), did not have jurisdiction in this matter. The Court held that the husband should have approached the authorized officer of the concerned Pakistan mission in the foreign country under Section 7 of the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The divorce certificate issued by the Chairman, Reconciliation Committee, was declared to be of no legal effect and set aside.

These case notes highlight the importance of determining the appropriate jurisdiction for divorce proceedings and reconciliation efforts when the parties are residing abroad. The courts emphasize adherence to the relevant laws and procedures to ensure the validity of divorce certificates and reconciliation attempts.

Legal Analysis of Case: Jurisdiction and Reconciliation in Divorce Proceedings

Case Citation: 2010 MLD 989 Lahore High Court Lahore

In the case of Syeda Wajiha Haris v. Chairman, Union Council No.7, Lahore, the Lahore High Court delved into the intricate issues of jurisdiction and reconciliation in divorce proceedings involving spouses residing abroad. The case revolved around the notice of divorce received by the petitioner/wife from the Chairman of Union Council No.7, Lahore, which offered reconciliation proceedings under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961.

The court examined the applicability of the law in cases where both spouses were residing abroad and possessed foreign residence. It acknowledged that for foreign resident Pakistanis, the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961 had established a remedy and forum for reconciliation between spouses through the Pakistan Mission in the countries of their residence. The primary concern was the availability of a proper forum for reconciliation when the parties were residing outside Pakistan.

The court’s ruling emphasized the importance of availing the remedy and forum provided by the law in cases involving foreign residents. It directed the husband to approach the Pakistan Mission in the country (abroad) to register the divorce pronounced by him upon the wife and to undertake reconciliation proceedings as envisioned by the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. The court declared that proceedings before the Chairman of Union Council No.7 were incompetent in such circumstances.

This case underscores the significance of adhering to the proper legal procedures and forums when it comes to divorce and reconciliation matters involving spouses residing abroad. It highlights the courts’ commitment to ensuring that the relevant laws are applied correctly, even when the parties are outside the country, in order to protect the rights and interests of the individuals involved. The case also emphasizes the role of the Pakistan Mission in foreign countries as a facilitator for reconciliation proceedings under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961.

Matters of Khula, when either of the parties is abroad

Based on the case notes discussed below and considering cases where one of the parties is abroad in Khula cases, several key takeaways can be derived:

  • Transparency and Honesty: Courts emphasize the importance of transparency and honesty between spouses. Concealing previous marriages or relevant information can affect the credibility of a party’s claims.
  • Genuine Aversion and Cruelty: Courts consider evidence of genuine aversion and cruelty as valid grounds for Khula. The emotional well-being and happiness of the parties are taken into account.
  • Separation and Non-Coexistence: Living separately for an extended period of time may contribute to the grounds for Khula. The inability or unwillingness of the parties to coexist is a factor in favor of granting the dissolution of marriage.
  • Compromise and Reconciliation: Efforts to effect a compromise and reconciliation between the parties are essential. Courts assess whether reconciliation is possible, but if evidence indicates an irreparable breakdown, the court may proceed with the dissolution.
  • Foreign Marriages: Foreign marriages are recognized and taken into account when determining marital status and legal obligations. The presence of a Nikahnama or other evidence can establish the existence of a previous marriage.
  • Cruel Treatment: Instances of cruelty, whether direct or indirect, including emotional distress and mistreatment by in-laws, can support the case for Khula.
  • Mandatory Provisions: Compliance with mandatory provisions of family court acts is crucial. Failure to follow procedural requirements can impact the validity of the court’s decision.
  • Aversion and Irreconcilable Differences: Evidence of an affixed aversion towards the spouse, supported by credible testimony, can influence the court’s decision. Irreconcilable differences may warrant the dissolution of marriage.
  • Legal Formalities: While legal formalities and compliance with the law are important, courts also consider practical circumstances and the parties’ intentions.
  • Fairness and Equity: Courts prioritize fairness, equity, and the well-being of both parties. Decisions aim to protect the rights and interests of each individual.

In Khula cases involving a party abroad, courts carefully assess the evidence, the parties’ actions, and the overall circumstances to ensure that justice is served and the best interests of the parties are upheld. The key takeaways emphasize the significance of transparency, genuine aversion, evidence of cruelty, and adherence to legal procedures.

Maintenance and Dissolution of Marriage Cases in Pakistani Courts

Case 1: Najam-ur-Rehman vs. Masooma Hassan (2023 CLC 991 KARACHI-HIGH-COURT-SINDH)

In this case, the issue revolved around maintenance charges within the context of a Khula proceeding. The petitioner, Najam-ur-Rehman, admitted to initially sending maintenance charges to the respondent, Masooma Hassan, with the intention of eventually arranging for her to join him abroad. However, he failed to fulfill this promise, leading the respondent to seek Khula. The petitioner’s failure to provide the opportunity for the respondent to join him rendered the marriage unworkable, and she rightfully sought dissolution.

The court, relying on Surah-Ahzab of the Holy Quran, emphasized that even if a husband has not consummated the marriage, he must support his wife. The inability to provide a visa for the respondent to live with the petitioner left her with no option but to seek Khula. The court upheld the concurrent findings of the lower courts and dismissed the petition, recognizing the validity of the respondent’s claim for Khula.

Case : Mst. Basmina vs. Imran (2018 MLD 870 PESHAWAR-HIGH-COURT)

This case delved into the complexities of cruelty, dower, and custody of minors in the context of dissolution of marriage. The petitioner, Mst. Basmina, sought dissolution based on cruelty, while the respondent, Imran, countered by questioning her entitlement to custody and dower. The court meticulously analyzed the evidence presented.

Despite the lack of direct evidence of cruelty, the court emphasized that the petitioner’s assertion of having heard disparaging remarks on the telephone was insufficient to prove cruelty. Additionally, the petitioner’s willingness to prefer death over living with the respondent undermined her claim of cruelty.

Regarding dower, the court affirmed that seven tolas of gold ornaments were rightfully considered the petitioner’s dower. Furthermore, the court highlighted that when a wife seeks Khula, she is obligated to surrender the dower.

The court recognized the husband’s legal and moral duty to maintain his wife during the marriage. It emphasized that he should provide maintenance to ensure his wife’s dignified life throughout the marriage’s subsistence.

The court also addressed the issue of custody of the minor. Noting that the petitioner had not demanded custody for a considerable time, it upheld the Family Court’s judicious handling of the matter.

In summary, these cases provide valuable insights into the legal principles governing maintenance, dower, cruelty, and custody of minors in Pakistani matrimonial disputes. They underscore the importance of fulfilling marital obligations and maintaining the dignity and well-being of both parties involved.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage on the Grounds of Khula – Spousal Obligations and Ex Parte Decree

In the case of Ghulam Qadir vs. Mst. Zainab alias Zeena (2017 MLD 1344 QUETTA-HIGH-COURT-BALOCHISTAN), the Quetta High Court of Balochistan examined the dissolution of a marriage through the Khula process. The petitioner, Ghulam Qadir, challenged the ex parte decree obtained by his wife, Mst. Zainab alias Zeena, asserting that it was based on a misappreciation of law and facts.

The central issue revolved around whether the conditions prescribed by Allah Almighty for a marital relationship were being met. The court emphasized that the requirement of the law was to establish that the spouses were unable to coexist within the boundaries set by religious principles. These boundaries encompassed the directions for a harmonious and fulfilling social life.

In this case, the respondent, Mst. Zainab, successfully provided ex parte evidence that her husband, Ghulam Qadir, had not fulfilled his duty of providing maintenance to her and their children for a prolonged period of fifteen years. Furthermore, she demonstrated that he had expelled her from their shared residence. The fact that the spouses had lived apart for such an extended duration without appropriate maintenance became a significant factor in evaluating whether they could continue their marriage within the parameters set by Allah Almighty.

The Family Court, in its wisdom, took into consideration these crucial factors and appropriately arrived at the conclusion that Khula should be granted. By doing so, the court underscored the importance of fulfilling spousal obligations and maintaining the prescribed limits ordained by religious principles. The court’s decision recognized the practical realities of the situation and upheld the respondent’s right to seek Khula based on her husband’s failure to uphold his responsibilities.

In summary, the Quetta High Court’s decision in this case highlights the importance of upholding the marital duties and responsibilities defined by religious principles. It emphasizes that the inability of spouses to live together within the limits prescribed by Allah Almighty, especially when considering maintenance and living arrangements, can justify the grant of Khula. The court’s decision aligns with the principles of justice and fairness while ensuring that the sanctity of marriage is upheld.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage and Maintenance Claims – Legal Complexities and Equitable Resolutions

The case of Zahir Shah vs. Mst. Seema (2017 CLCN 26 PESHAWAR-HIGH-COURT) presented intricate legal issues surrounding the dissolution of marriage, maintenance claims, and the concept of Khula under Islamic law. The Peshawar High Court meticulously analyzed the facts and evidence to arrive at a just and equitable resolution.

The petitioner, Zahir Shah, and the respondent, Mst. Seema, were parties to a tumultuous marital relationship. The husband had entered into a second marriage and was residing abroad, leading to strained relations between the spouses. The absence of offspring from the union was a significant factor in evaluating the nature of the marital tie.

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The court considered the evidence presented, which depicted a lack of cordiality in the relationship. The wife asserted her entitlement to maintenance for a period of eight years, which the court adjusted to six years based on the available evidence. Additionally, the court ruled that one tola of dower remained outstanding, and the wife rightfully claimed her entitlement to it.

Serious allegations of cruelty and maltreatment, compounded by the husband’s second marriage and his absence, were presented in the proceedings. The court recognized that cruelty extended beyond physical abuse, encompassing emotional distress and the husband’s actions that led the wife into litigation. This broader definition of cruelty substantiated the wife’s claims.

The court addressed the issue of the dissolution of marriage on the grounds of Khula. While the wife failed to challenge the dissolution with the condition of returning six tolas of dower before the High Court in constitutional jurisdiction, the appellate court’s findings were examined. The appellate court had competently assessed the available evidence but exceeded its jurisdiction by modifying the grounds for dissolution from Khula to cruelty.

The High Court upheld the dissolution of marriage on the ground of Khula, but removed the condition of returning benefits. This decision emphasized that the husband could not claim benefits from the wife after the dissolution. The court maintained the appellate court’s decision regarding payment of one tola by the husband to the wife.

In conclusion, the Peshawar High Court recognized the complexities of matrimonial disputes, encompassing dissolution of marriage, maintenance, and the intricacies of Khula. The court’s decision aimed to provide an equitable resolution, acknowledging the emotional distress endured by the wife and the need to uphold the principles of justice and fairness within the boundaries of Islamic law.

Case Note: Proper Procedure in Dissolution of Marriage Cases – Ensuring Procedural Fairness and Compliance

In the case of Javad Iqbal Khan vs. Nahid Hussain (2011 PCrLJ 1220 LAHORE-HIGH-COURT-LAHORE), the Lahore High Court highlighted the importance of procedural fairness and compliance with legal formalities in dissolution of marriage cases, particularly those based on the grounds of Khula.

The case revolved around a suit for the dissolution of marriage initiated by the plaintiff, Nahid Hussain, on the ground of Khula. The plaintiff, who was a doctor serving abroad, sought to have her statement recorded before the defendant filed a written statement. She invoked Order XVIII, Rule 16 of the Civil Procedure Code (C.P.C.) to request the recording of her statement due to her impending departure.

The Family Court proceeded to record the plaintiff’s statement before the defendant had been served with notice and before he had an opportunity for cross-examination. The court’s action contravened the provisions of Sections 10 and 11 of the West Pakistan Family Courts Act, 1964, which require certain procedural steps to be followed in matrimonial proceedings.

The Lahore High Court, in its analysis, recognized that the Family Court had committed an irregularity by recording the plaintiff’s evidence without complying with codal formalities and without affording the defendant an opportunity to respond. The court emphasized that fairness and procedural integrity were crucial in ensuring justice.

The proper course of action, as outlined by the Lahore High Court, should have been for the Family Court to allow the defendant to file a written statement, fix a date for reconciliation, and proceed in accordance with the law. Only after exhausting these steps should the court have proceeded to pass a decree on the principle of Khula, if reconciliation was not achievable.

In conclusion, the Lahore High Court’s decision underscored the significance of adhering to procedural norms, ensuring both parties have an equal opportunity to present their cases, and maintaining the principles of justice. The court’s ruling emphasized that while the dissolution of marriage cases, especially those involving Khula, may carry emotional weight, it is essential to follow established legal procedures to safeguard the integrity of the judicial process.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage on Grounds of Khula – Dower and Reconciliation Proceedings

In the case of Wahid-ul-Islam vs. Shaheen Akhtar (2011 CLC 566 LAHORE-HIGH-COURT-LAHORE), the Lahore High Court addressed a legal dispute involving the dissolution of marriage on the grounds of Khula, non-payment of maintenance, and the issue of dower. The court examined the interplay between legal provisions, the husband’s claims, and the process of reconciliation.

The plaintiff, Shaheen Akhtar, filed a suit seeking the dissolution of her marriage based on Khula and non-payment of maintenance. The defendant, Wahid-ul-Islam, contested the suit and initiated a separate suit for restitution of conjugal rights. The Trial Court granted the plaintiff’s request for dissolution while dismissing the defendant’s restitution suit. The Appellate Court upheld the Trial Court’s decisions.

The defendant argued that a decree for dissolution of marriage on the grounds of Khula could not have been passed without the return of the dower and other articles allegedly taken by the wife from his house. The court examined the facts and determined that the dower was fixed at Rs. 1000 and paid at the time of marriage. Importantly, the husband’s written statement did not specifically claim the return of dower, leading to an implied waiver on his part.

The court highlighted the provisions of Section 10(4) of the West Pakistan Family Courts Act, 1964, which mandated the court to decree the dissolution of marriage on the failure of reconciliation proceedings and to direct the return of the “Haq maher” received by the wife. However, in the absence of a specific claim by the husband for the return of dower, an implied waiver was established. As a result, the wife was not obliged to return the dower.

The court also considered the failed reconciliation proceedings and the wife’s sworn testimony expressing severe hatred towards the husband. The fact that the husband had been living abroad throughout the proceedings further contributed to the court’s analysis.

The court rejected the husband’s contention that the wife had taken ornaments, garments, and cash from his mother. Such items, even if taken, did not amount to the benefits of marriage taken from the husband.

Ultimately, the court emphasized that the decree for dissolution of marriage was valid and legally sound, as it was within the jurisdiction of the court and adhered to the relevant legal principles. The court dismissed the constitutional petition in light of these considerations.

In summary, the case underscores the importance of properly claiming and establishing legal entitlements, such as the return of dower, and highlights the significance of the legal process in matrimonial disputes involving Khula and dissolution of marriage.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage on Grounds of Khula – Validity of Foreign and Local Marriages

The case of Muhammad Abrar vs. Judge, Family Court, Gojra (2003 CLC 1858 LAHORE-HIGH-COURT-LAHORE) brought before the Lahore High Court raised intricate legal issues regarding the dissolution of marriage on the grounds of Khula, the validity of foreign and local marriages, and the husband’s actions.

The appellant, Muhammad Abrar, admitted to having married another woman in the United Kingdom. He contended that this foreign marriage was a mere paper marriage to facilitate his stay abroad. He further argued that his subsequent marriage to a woman in Pakistan was valid and genuine. However, the court found that the husband’s actions, including the performance of a paper marriage and a marriage in Pakistan, amounted to an act of cheating.

The Lahore High Court determined that the performance of a paper marriage in a foreign country and a subsequent marriage in Pakistan was an act of deception on the husband’s part. This deceitful conduct was deemed sufficient to satisfy the judicious conscience of the court. The court concluded that the Family Court was fully competent to dissolve the marriage on the basis of Khula, and its decision to do so was justified given the circumstances.

The evidence presented during the proceedings indicated that the case did not involve misreading or non-reading of evidence, and the factual findings made by the Family Court were consistent with the law. The Lahore High Court emphasized that the findings of the Family Court should not be interfered with by the High Court in the exercise of its Constitutional jurisdiction.

In summary, the case underscores the importance of upholding the principles of fairness and justice in matters of matrimonial disputes and the dissolution of marriage. It demonstrates the court’s readiness to address complex legal issues related to foreign and local marriages, and to protect the integrity of the legal process when faced with deceptive conduct. The Lahore High Court’s decision reflects its commitment to ensuring that marital dissolution is based on sound legal principles and equitable considerations.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage on Grounds of Khula – Compliance with Compromise and Reconciliation Provisions

The case of Nasir Pervaiz vs. Shazia Qayyum (2002 MLD 1826 SHARIAT-COURT-AZAD-KASHMIR) presented a complex legal scenario involving the dissolution of marriage on the grounds of Khula and the compliance with provisions related to compromise and reconciliation. The matter was brought before the Shariat Court of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and revolved around the efforts made to effect a compromise between the parties.

The appellant, Nasir Pervaiz, challenged the decree of the Family Court that granted dissolution of marriage based on Khula. He contended that the trial was marred by non-compliance with the mandatory provisions of Sections 10 and 12 of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Family Courts Act, 1993, which pertained to pretrial and post-trial efforts to effect compromise and conciliation between the parties.

The court examined the evidence on record and found that the Family Court had indeed made efforts to effect a compromise and reconciliation between the spouses in compliance with the provisions of Sections 10 and 12 of the said Act. The court noted that after the defendant filed a written statement, a date was fixed for compromise, but the Trial Court concluded that reconciliation was not possible on that occasion.

Subsequently, after the evidence of both parties was closed, the Family Court made another attempt to effect compromise between the spouses. However, it arrived at the conclusion that the plaintiff had a fixed aversion against the defendant and was unwilling to live with him under any circumstances.

The court emphasized that the provisions under Sections 10 and 12 of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Family Courts Act, 1993, were indeed complied with by the Family Court. It further noted that non-compliance with these provisions, even if present, would not be sufficient to invalidate a decree for dissolution of marriage passed by the Family Court. The court took into account the fact that the plaintiff had already sought a decree for dissolution of marriage from a court abroad and had even obtained a decree for restitution of conjugal rights in favor of the defendant. Despite these circumstances, the plaintiff expressed a clear intention not to live with the defendant.

In conclusion, the case reaffirms the importance of complying with legal procedures related to compromise and reconciliation efforts in matters of dissolution of marriage. It highlights that non-compliance with such provisions may not necessarily invalidate the proceedings if other relevant circumstances demonstrate a clear intent or irreconcilable differences between the parties. The court’s decision underscores the need to balance legal formalities with the practical realities of the situation at hand.

Case Note: Dissolution of Marriage on Grounds of Khula – Genuine Aversion and Cruel Treatment

The case of Huma Hafeez vs. Shaukat Javeid (1993 CLC 855 LAHORE-HIGH-COURT-LAHORE) brought before the Lahore High Court addressed the issue of dissolution of marriage based on Khula and the presence of genuine aversion and cruel treatment.

The appellant, Huma Hafeez, sought dissolution of her marriage to Shaukat Javeid on the grounds of Khula. The court noted that the couple had been living separately for a number of years, and Huma Hafeez had reached the point of appealing to the High Court to seek the dissolution of the marriage.

The court examined the evidence presented, including the factum of the husband’s previous marriage, which he had allegedly kept secret from his wife. Although the husband denied the previous marriage, the presence of a Nikahnama (marriage contract) prima facie indicated that he was indeed previously married. This indicated a lack of transparency and openness in their marital relationship.

Furthermore, the court noted instances of cruel treatment by the husband, including his absence abroad and his parents’ treatment of the wife. The evidence demonstrated that Huma Hafeez was not leading a happy life within the marriage. The court recognized that the wife was in the best position to testify about the treatment she received from her husband and his parents, while the evidence presented in rebuttal was merely hearsay.

The Lahore High Court concluded that the evidence on record established a genuine ground for the wife’s aversion towards her husband. The court emphasized that an unhappy union should not be forced upon a wife who could not live with her husband due to the circumstances presented. As a result, Huma Hafeez was deemed entitled to a decree for Khula, recognizing her right to seek the dissolution of the marriage based on the evidence of genuine aversion and cruel treatment.

In summary, the case highlights the court’s commitment to ensuring the well-being and happiness of individuals in a marital relationship. It underscores the importance of addressing genuine grievances and aversions within a marriage, especially when evidence of cruel treatment and unhappiness is presented. The Lahore High Court’s decision reflects its dedication to upholding the principles of justice and fairness in matters of matrimonial disputes.

 

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